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Contents:

  1. reef breeding article
    by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) (8 May 92)
  2. [M] More on MH lighting
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (22 Apr 92)
  3. [M] More on MH lighting
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (23 Apr 92)
  4. [M] Octocoral (soft coral) Spawning Journal Info
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (29 Apr 92)
  5. [M] 3 Month plan to Mass Broadcast Coral Spawning
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (28 Apr 92)
  6. (M) Want to feel like a bad guy?
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (19 Mar 92)
  7. (M) Want to feel like a bad guy?
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (24 Mar 92)
  8. (M) Want to feel like a bad guy?
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (25 Mar 92)
  9. (M) (Now Coral Spawning)
    by kvk/questor.sw.stratus.com (Ken Koellner) (25 Mar 92)
  10. (M) (Now Coral Spawning)
    by frazier/oahu.cs.ucla.edu (Greg Frazier) (Fri, 27 Mar 92)
  11. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (26 Mar 92)
  12. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (29 Mar 92)
  13. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by jamieo/gbrmpa.gov.au (Jamie Oliver) (Sun, 29 Mar 92)
  14. (No Title)
    by ()
  15. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (30 Mar 92)
  16. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (31 Mar 92)
  17. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) (1 Apr 92)
  18. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (5 Apr 92)
  19. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by jamieo/gbrmpa.gov.au (Jamie Oliver) (5 Apr 92)
  20. (No Title)
    by ()
  21. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (6 Apr 92)
  22. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (7 Apr 92)
  23. (M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (8 Apr 92)
  24. (M) "Reef Breeding - Techniques and Practices"
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (30 Mar 92)
  25. (M)Spawning of Elegance coral
    by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) (30 Mar 92)
  26. (M)Spawning of Elegance coral
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (31 Mar 92)
  27. coral spawning
    by tse/ra.nrl.navy.mil (Anthony Tse) (30 Mar 92)
  28. Reef Breeding Techniques and Practices
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (1 Apr 92)
  29. It must be that time of year-Anemone spawning?
    by fssmith/venus.lerc.nasa.gov (Greg Smith) (13 Apr 1992)
  30. It must be that time of year-Anemone spawning?
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (13 Apr 92)
  31. It must be that time of year-Anemone spawning?
    by glee/athena.mit.edu (Gilbert Huppert) (Mon, 13 Apr 1992)
  32. [M] Hard coral spawning continued...
    by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) (13 Apr 92)
  33. [M] Hard coral spawning continued...
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (13 Apr 92)
  34. [M] Hard coral spawning continued...
    by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) (16 Apr 92)
  35. [M] Hard coral spawning continued...
    by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) (16 Apr 92)
  36. [M] Reef Breeding Update
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (19 Apr 92)
  37. [M] Reef Breeding Update
    by PLai/cup.portal.com (Patrick L Faith) (Sun, 19 Apr 92)
  38. [M] Reef Breeding Update
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (20 Apr 92)
  39. [M] Reef Breeding Update
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (21 Apr 92)
  40. [M] Identification of juvenile Trachophyllia Geoffroyi ?
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (27 Apr 92)
  41. [M][R] My open brain coral spawned
    by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers) (Wed, 29 Apr 1992)
  42. [M][R] My open brain coral spawned
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (30 Apr 92)
  43. [M][R] My open brain coral spawned
    by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers) (30 Apr 92)
  44. [M] Coral spawn, followup info
    by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) (4 May 92)
  45. reef breeding article
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (9 May 92)
  46. reef breeding article
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (12 May 92)
  47. [M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (8 Jun 92)
  48. [M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (9 Jun 92)
  49. [M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (10 Jun 92)
  50. [M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (15 Jun 92)
  51. [M] Raising Soft Mushroom Coral Planulae/Spat Larvae
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (11 Jun 92)
  52. Cerianthus anemone reproduction
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (26 Jun 92)
  53. Cerianthus anemone reproduction
    by cowan/aqua.ocunix.on.ca (D. Cowan (Postmaster)) (Sun, 28 Jun 92)
  54. Cerianthus anemone reproduction
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (29 Jun 92)
  55. Cerianthus anemone reproduction
    by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers) (Mon, 29 Jun 1992)
  56. Cerianthus anemone reproduction
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (30 Jun 92)
  57. [M] Spawning of Euphyllia ancora
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (9 Jul 92)
  58. [M] Spawning of Euphyllia ancora
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (10 Jul 92)
  59. [M] Spawning of Euphyllia ancora
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (13 Jul 92)
  60. [M][R] Strange behavior of elegance corals.
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (20 Jul 92)
  61. [M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning (was Re:[M] Threespot Damsel Spa..)
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (22 Jul 92)
  62. [M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning (was Re:[M] Threespot Damsel Spa..)
    by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers) (Thu, 23 Jul 1992)
  63. [M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning (was Re:[M] Threespot Damsel Spa..)
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (23 Jul 92)
  64. [M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (24 Jul 92)
  65. (M)(REEF) Gorgonian Spawning Again
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (26 Oct 92)
  66. (M)(REEF) Gorgonian Spawning Again
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (27 Oct 92)
  67. (M)(REEF) Gorgonian Spawning Again
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (29 Oct 92)
  68. [M] Calling all Reef Breeders...
    by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) (18 Feb 93)

reef breeding article

by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer)
Date: 8 May 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <1532-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:
>In article <3185-at-dove.nist.gov> rosentha-at-bldrdoc.gov (Peter Rosenthal 303-497-5844) writes:
>>"How do Planktonic Larvae Know Where to Settle?"
>>Author:  Aileen N.C. Morse
>>American Scientist 
>>Vol. 79 No. 2 Mar-Apr 1991
>>Page 154
>>
>>The article describes some research demonstrating and identifying the
>>chemical specificity of various larvae of Abalone, worms and corals
>>when they choose substrates.  Apparently, red coralline algae are
>>absolutely required for the larvae to stick and transform into
>>the sessile forms.  Some planktonic larvae are specific to
>>only one species of red coralline algae.  
>>
>>The article has a fairly large bibliography.
>>
>>Getting a specific coral to reproduce sexually in captivity may
>>be very difficult if they require a certain substrate with
>>particular biochemical markers.  On the other hand, if you
>>know what the required substrate is, and you have it on 
>>hand, then you might be able to raise buttloads of polyps. sorry :-)
>>
>  Peter, I have included a bibliography of scientific journal articles that
>deal with settling of planulae. Hope these help. This coralline algae disc-
>overy is new and I havent found references to it anywhere. Very interesting.
>In the future I was planning on farming coralline algaes to (distant future)
>If we can grow these quickly, we could quite literally create coral reefs
>from scratch.
>
> Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder

Steve, I asume you mean encrusting coraline algae? You should have no
problem growing this if you have a sufficient source of it on live rock.
It apparently also spreads sexually since I find it on my tank walls
PCV piping and power heads which are several inches to several feet from
the nearest live rock containing it. It seems to like the moderate
light areas at the ends of the tank and not in the center where the
4 175w halides are very intense. (not that it doesn't grow here on
the live rock) Just the density of growth on the glass is far higher
at the tank ends. It loves high calcium levels.

		Scott Schaeffer
		scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com

PS keep the breeding data coming its great!!!


[M] More on MH lighting

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 22 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria

In article <22APR199211341115-at-venus.lerc.nasa.gov> fssmith-at-venus.lerc.nasa.gov (Greg Smith) writes:
> I have had both bubble coral and elegans coral produce asexually.  They produce
>a piece of tissue which hangs from the main stem for several months and 
>continually grows.  While it is hanging it forms a calcarous base and becomes
>heavier.  It eventually breaks off and forms a new coral.  So far I have one 
>baby bubble coral and two baby elegans.

 One of my flower pot corals may be doing this to. Seems like these coral 
species have more then one way to reproduce. This is probably why they are
still exisiting on the planet. I have recently starting investigating any
small white object seen hung up in microalgae. Under a 100x microscope a
lot of them appear very like planulae. Also, the surface of my tank is
covered with small crustaceans, bristle worms etc. every night. I have a
real large plankton population in my tank to. I dont use micron sized 
mechanical filters of any kind. This may allow your reef to be just like
a natural one, with a large plankton population. In a good running reef
getting reef species to spawn may not be as hard as some might lead you
to believe. Getting stony corals to mass spawn is still a tough one. Re-
leasing eggs and sperm at the same time has to be done with perfect timing
and conditioning. The ultimate reef breeding trick would be to get mutiple
egg spawns to occur at the same time. The real tough one is to have a male
and female coral release eggs and sperm in harmony, and have them fertilized
by the tank current moving them together. It is not impossible :>

 Ps - I have found BLUE crystal like structures growing in the bottom of some
      of the containers I had the coral egg hatchings in. This color is very
      rare in a natural coral. Could be due to the unnatural flourescent light
      I am using. These are very heavy objects. Growing by budding. Did not
      look at them for very long. Only found three so far. Believe that white
      growths are turning dark and then possibly blue. Will keep you updated
      on progress of open brain coral egg developing.

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


[M] More on MH lighting

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 23 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria

In article <1500-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:
>
> Ps - I have found BLUE crystal like structures growing in the bottom of some
>      of the containers I had the coral egg hatchings in. This color is very
>      rare in a natural coral. Could be due to the unnatural flourescent light
>      I am using. These are very heavy objects. Growing by budding. Did not
>      look at them for very long. Only found three so far. Believe that white
>      growths are turning dark and then possibly blue. Will keep you updated
>      on progress of open brain coral egg developing.
>
  I have investigated these some more and it turns out they are small chips
that have fallen from blue airstone..... What an emotional roller coaster.
The coral has spawned, I have planulae no I have protozoan. Look a blue coral,
no its just a chip of blue airstone.. Still havent given up hope. Will keep
looking...
   
   Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder 


[M] Octocoral (soft coral) Spawning Journal Info

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 29 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 This information bulletin tries to relay data found in an scientific journal.
This article deals with Octocorals of the Great Barrier Reef. These are known
to us as soft corals. They can release eggs just like the stony corals can. I
will try to put the info in a common format.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Scientific Journal - Bulletin of Marine Science. Issue #45 volume #3
                                                 pages 697-707  1989

Article Title - Observations of the Synchronized Mass Spawning and Postsettle-
                ment activity of Octocorals on the Great Barrier Reef, Aust-
                ralia: Biological Aspects.

     Authors  - Porfirio M. Alino, John C. Coll
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 I will try to enter the data found in Table #1. Titled - Summary of observa-
tions on the spawning activity of some octocorals from the central region of
the Great Barrier Reef. Here are some terms used in the table.

  broadcast - refers to a method of spawning. Eggs and sperm are released or
              broadcast away from the coral and fertilized externally by the
              water current.

  brooder   - eggs are fertilized inside coral polyp and a planulae is brood-
              ed and slowly released when mature. This planulae will settle
              on substarte and transform into a juvenile coral or (spat).

  external surface brooder - eggs are fertilzed and held on the exterior or
                             surface of the coral. Then a planulae is formed
                             and later released.
  egg size - In microns. Accuracy +- 50 microns.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Listing of scientific family trees along with common names which I could find
last night. If anyone can fill in the question marks, go ahead.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Corals belong to the Order Alcyonaccea
       Corals belonging to Family Alcyoniidae
                                  Genus Lobophytum   (Common = ??)
                                  Genus Sinularia    (Common = Colt or Tree)
                                  Genus Sarcophyton  (Common = Leather)
                                  Genus Alcyonium    (Common = ??)

       Corals belonging to Family Xeniidae   (Common = Pulse)
                                        Species heteroxenia
                                        Species xenia
                                        Species efflatounaria 

Corals belong to the Order Stolonifera
       Corals belonging to Family Clavulariidae   (Common = starburst)
                                        Species Pachyclavularia violacea
                                        Species Clavularia inflata

Corals belong to the Order Gorgonacea   (Common = Goronians or Sea Fans)
       Corals belonging to Family Briareidae 
                                        Species Briareum stechei
----------------------|---------|------|----|-----------|---------------------
 Scientific           |Days from|Time  |Egg |  Egg      | Spawning Type
 Species Name         |Full Moon|of Day|Size|  Color    | or Method
----------------------|---------|------|----|-----------|---------------------
Genus Lobophytum
 L. compactum            4,5     ~2200  650  Purple/Pink  broadcast
 L. crassum              2,3,4   ~1745  650  Pink/Purple  broadcast
 L. planum               4,5     21-06  600  Green        broadcast
 L. pauciflorum          4,5     ~1900  600  Green        broadcast
 L. microlobulatum       4,5      ----  600  White        broadcast
 L. hirsutum             4        ----  ---  -------      broadcast

Genus Sinularia
 S. rigida               3,4      2030  800 Grey/Brown    broadcast
 S. deformis             4        ----  --- --------      broadcast
 S. polydactyla          4,5      1800  --- --------      broadcast
 S. conferta             3,4      2030  825 Grey/Brown    broadcast
 S. lochmodes            ---      ----  800 Cream/Brown   broadcast
 S. cruciata             4        ----  790 Grey/Brown    broadcast

Genus Sarcophyton
 Sarcophyton sp.         4        1812  600 Purple        broadcast
 S. glaucum              4,5      2100  600 Purple        broadcast
 S. (cf.) ehrenbergi     4,5      ----  710 Green/Grey    broadcast

Genus Alcyonium
 A. aspiculatum          4        ----  --- --------      -------
 A. molle                5+       2030  700 Cream         broadcast
 Cladiella (cf.)
            prattae      5+       2030  700 Cream/Biege   broadcast

Family Xeniidae
 Heteroxenia sp.         2,3,4    1230+ 1050 Brown/Orange internal
                                             Planulae     brooder
 Xenia sp. 1             -1        AM   950  White        internal
                                             Planulae     brooder
 Xenia sp. 2             -1        AM   950  White        internal
                                             Planulae     brooder
 Efflatounaria sp.       -4        AM   1000 White        external surface
                                             Planulae     brooder

Family Clavulariidae
 Pachyclavularia
            violacea   11,12,13+  1000+ 1000 Reddish/Brown external surface
                                             Planulae      brooder
 Clavularia inflata    22,23,24+  0900+ 1050 White         external surface
                                             Planulae      brooder

Family Briareidae
 Briareum stechei      11,12,13+  1000+ 725  Reddish/Brown external surface
                                             Planulae      brooder
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 If anyone has more acurate descriptions for common of the above mentioned
species, please post them.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


[M] 3 Month plan to Mass Broadcast Coral Spawning

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 28 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 Starting May 1st I am going to put my reef tank into a 6 month 
yearly rhythm. This rhythm will start at mid winter and I am going
to try to predict when corals will spawn in my reef tank. This is
meant to be an experiment to see if duplicated Great Barrier Reef
conditions on a 1/2 time scale can be used to induce and predict
coral spawning nights. I will also watch to see if an Trachophyllia
geoffroyi will be able to respawn in my reef. The first 3 months
of this shifted year are critical to inducing spawning which should
occur during month #3. My primary observations will be for broadcast
mass spawning but I will also watch for brooding planulae releases.
 As a point of reference I will list events that are going to occur
in my tank and reference them to real time. I also have some questions
maybe some experts can answer.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Full Moons During the First 3 Months
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Reef Day #0    Real Time Day April 30th
 Reef Day #15   Real Time Day May 15th
 Reef Day #30   Real Time Day May 30th 
 Reef Day #45   Real Time Day June 14th
 Reef Day #60   Real Time Day June 29th
 Reef Day #75   Real Time Day July 14th
 Reef Day #90   Real Time Day July 29th
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Note - New moons occur between full moons. Their are 184 days in my
        current reef year.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Temperature Gradients for entire Reef year (in degrees F)
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Reef Day #5    Temp = 75.0      Reef Day #96   Temp = 80.0
 Reef Day #12   Temp = 75.0      Reef Day #103  Temp = 80.0
 Reef Day #19   Temp = 75.0      Reef Day #110  Temp = 80.0
 Reef Day #26   Temp = 75.5      Reef Day #117  Temp = 80.0
 Reef Day #33   Temp = 76.0      Reef Day #124  Temp = 79.5
 Reef Day #40   Temp = 76.5      Reef Day #131  Temp = 79.0
 Reef Day #47   Temp = 77.0      Reef Day #138  Temp = 78.5
 Reef Day #54   Temp = 77.5      Reef Day #145  Temp = 78.0
 Reef Day #61   Temp = 78.0      Reef Day #152  Temp = 77.5
 Reef Day #68   Temp = 78.5      Reef Day #159  Temp = 77.0
 Reef Day #75   Temp = 79.0      Reef Day #166  Temp = 76.5
 Reef Day #82   Temp = 79.5      Reef Day #173  Temp = 76.0
 Reef Day #89   Temp = 80.0      Reef Day #180  Temp = 75.5
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 According to my preliminary caculations, spawning should occur in
the days following the full moon of Reef Day #75 and Reef Day #90.
My early predictions for real time spawning are July 15-July 18 and
also July 30 - August 2. We will see if corals spawn and if they 
do what days it occurs on.
 Reef Days for real time spawning prediction - 76-79 and 91-94.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 Daylight length times are also going to be varied. From 9 hour metal
halide cycle times to 12 hour metal halide cycles times. This is where
my current research is centered. What are the proper diel times for
the mid-Great Barrier Reef ? Winter daylight length , spawning months
daylight length and mid summer daylight lengths.
 One other question concerning temperature gradient. Should I have the
temperature increase earlier to give the corals more time to develope
sperm and eggs ? 
 Any help would be appreciated.
 note - These are not exact duplications of the Great Barrier Reef.
        The water gets a little to warm in late summer for home
        reef purposes.
---------------------------------------------------------------------

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


(M) Want to feel like a bad guy?

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 19 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <1992Mar19.015055.3716-at-athena.mit.edu> djboccip-at-athena.mit.edu (Dennis J Boccippio) writes:
>As per the Audobon article ("RAIDING THE REEFS"), it seems they have several
>  main gripes:
>
>	(4) Stony coral collection; problem being that stony corals have not
>		been documented to reproduce in tank setups (presumably the
>		reason being their free-swimming stage doesn't agree well with
>		filtration systems)
>
>Of these, the stony coral collection sounds the most threatening.  The authors
>  levelled a challenge to aquarists to document any cases of stony coral
>  reproduction (this does not include growth of 'cuttings' from or reproduction
>  of soft corals, which seem to do quite well in the right conditions).
>  This seems an appropriate forum to extend the question: has anybody had any
>  luck with reproduction of their hard corals?
>
     I have a 180 gallon reef tank that was set up initially to help collect
  pelagically released eggs. I am collecting spawns from 2 types of centropyge
  angels quite often. My current hurdle is getting an acceptable live food.
  A infusoria culture has been started from my main tank and I have ordered
  a very large dinoflagellate culture from a culture center. This culture is
  growing very slowly. I feel that im very close to providing an initial food
  for both centropyges. My water return system has a bypass valve which keeps
  water circulating through the trickle filter bio chamber. I stop all water
  circulating threw the main tank for 2 hours every night that I collect eggs.
   ps - I have had an 10 gallon culture of rotifers going for about a year
        now. Unfortunately they are to large for centropyge angel larvae.

     Im in the process of puting together a long (>200 line) article on what
  I see emerging as a new solution for some of the problems in the reef damag- 
  ing area. The article is titled "Call for Open Discussion on Reef Breeding
  Techniques and Pratices". I would like to post it into alt.aquaria and
  sci.aquaria. It should be complete in 1 - 2 weeks. Would posting an 200 line
  article on this very important subject be a correct thing to do here ?
     Last week while my water was not circulating threw the main tank, I 
  witnessed an large Trachyphyllia Geoffreyi (open brain coral) release
  sperm and pelagic coral eggs. It was an awesome site. The closed brain coral
  has more then 10 mouths or polyps. Each one simultaneouslly released 
  (more like a small geyser) sperm and eggs. I wasnt looking at it directly 
  so I dont know if sperm and eggs came from the same polyps or if somes
  polyps are strictly male and some female. The brain coral spawned for 5
  days and I collected over 500 fertilized coral eggs. I have been hatching
  them out like I have been hatching out pelagic centropyge fish eggs. 
    The coral eggs are not transparent like fish eggs. They are a solid white 
  in color. Sorry got to run to work. Very busy.
    Im currently watching the containers which have the hatched eggs and can
  post further info here later.   Got to run..
      Back to my day job :>


(M) Want to feel like a bad guy?

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 24 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <29673-at-cbmvax.commodore.com> scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) writes:
>In article <1380-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:
>>In article <1992Mar19.015055.3716-at-athena.mit.edu> djboccip-at-athena.mit.edu (Dennis J Boccippio) writes:
>>>As per the Audobon article ("RAIDING THE REEFS"), it seems they have several
>>>  main gripes:
>>>
>>>	(4) Stony coral collection; problem being that stony corals have not
>>>		been documented to reproduce in tank setups (presumably the
>>>		reason being their free-swimming stage doesn't agree well with
>>>		filtration systems)
>>>
>>     Last week while my water was not circulating threw the main tank, I 
>>  witnessed an large Trachyphyllia Geoffreyi (open brain coral) release
>>  sperm and pelagic coral eggs. It was an awesome site. The closed brain coral
>>  has more then 10 mouths or polyps. Each one simultaneouslly released 
>>  (more like a small geyser) sperm and eggs. I wasnt looking at it directly 
>>  so I dont know if sperm and eggs came from the same polyps or if somes
>>  polyps are strictly male and some female. The brain coral spawned for 5
>>  days and I collected over 500 fertilized coral eggs. I have been hatching
>>  them out like I have been hatching out pelagic centropyge fish eggs. 
>
>I'm sure fellow reef fanatics would love to hear more about your
>system, water parameters and lighting (including photoperiods) and also
>the length of time you've had the open brain. I have one of these
>beauties and its enormous,but I've never seen spawning. Let us know
>how the eggs do.

  I plan on releasing all this information just as soon as I can get it
 all typed in and in a coherent format. The brain coral spawning is being
 documented and I was able to get pictures of another spawn which occurred
 saturday night 2 hours before the night twilight period began. The pictures
 are being developed and I hope they turn out. The new spawn was a slow
 release spawn and happened over 1 hour. I hope the pictures turn out good
 that show more then 100 eggs floating on the surface above the open brain
 coral. Will look at them later today. It may have been a combination of a
 lot of parameters that induced the spawning. That is why it will take a 
 while for me to correlate it all. I have some growths that may or may not
 be the planktonic form of this of this coral. Here is a basic overview of
 what I have observed the eggs to do.
    Eggs will only hatch if exposed to bright lite the next morning. I have
 not verified yet if this is a hatching or a decomposing. A lot of small
 open brain corals will verify this. The round egg mass breaks up into 
 clumps. These clumps are composed of small 2 - 6 micron sized spheres.
 While shing a bright flashlight at one of these clumps , I witnessed what
 could end up being the hatching. The numerous (100-200) small spheres per
 clump, became detached and moved away from each other. Then about 60 seconds
 later the sphers exploded or poped in size to 5 - 10 micron in size.
 They appear to shine funny in the center as if they already have a algae
 associated with them.
   The next 3 days are blank in my records but after that I observed 
 numerous colonies of sphere shaped diatoms ? that were joining together
 making spiked spheres and other formations. Now they are sort of melding
 into a large organism. I need to verify what form is inbetwwen the 
 sphere(5-10)microns and spear(50 microns) before I know whether they
 are the same organism. The new spawn should tell me this.
  This is just basic spawning info with no details. You could write volumes
 of data per each organism if you had the time.....


(M) Want to feel like a bad guy?

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 25 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <29720-at-cbmvax.commodore.com> scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) writes:
>... and lots of fascinating detail.
>
>This information should prove interesting to biologists who study corals
>and I'm sure all of us would love hearing thier comments/advice on such
>events. Does anyone know what is the technical title for a "coral
>expert" and if there is any usenet group which would contain such
>experts? Maybe we could get a dialogue between the two groups.
>
 Here is the specs of the tank were a Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi (Open Brain
 Coral) has spawned. Tank is an 180 gallon reef with 2 center overflow
 chambers, trickle filter, 5 foot protein skimmer, uv sterilizer and
 ozone generator.
 Water parameters - Dissolved Oxygen 6.6 ppm, DKH 13.3 degree,
                     nitrate < 1.1 ppm NO3, phosphate < 0.05 ppm,
                     temperature in morning 77 degrees F,
                     temperature at end of day 78 degrees F,
                     salinity (I will check into this and report current
                               value and any trend that may have occurred)
 Additives - KH, Kalkwaser, reef calcium, reef ksm, tat ksm, liquid gold,
             tech iodine, tat marine vitamins, macro algae iron, marine
             plant food.
 Water used - Mostly tap filtered 6 times in magnum cartridge. 
              Coconut carbon, xnitrate, metal gone, xphosphate, poly filters
              and micron filter. Some real ocean used during water changes.
              10 gallons changed per week. About 5 percent.
 Chemical Medium - Coconut carbon, xnitrate, xphosphate, poly filters.

 Food used - some corals (including open brain) feed frozen krill soaked
             with a couple drops of selcon about every 2 weeks. Live rotifer
             and baby brine put in tank daily. This is for a species of 
             anthias which requires this food. Various other fish foods.

 Light cycle - The current light cycle is listed below.
               8:00 am    2 - 140 watt actinic tubes comes on.
               8:30 am    1 - 175 watt metal halide on right comes on.
               9:30 am    1 - 175 watt metal halide in center comes on.
               10:30 am   1 - 175 watt metal halide on left comes on.
               8:30 pm    1 - 175 watt metal halide on right turns off.
               9:30 pm    1 - 175 watt metal halide in center turns off.
               10:30 pm   1 - 175 watt metal halide on left turns off.
               12:00 am   2 - 140 watt actinic tubes turn off.
              
               This is how all the timers are set. I usually turn off the  
               actinics by hand and dont do so till 1 or 2 am. This helps
               induce spawning of reef fishes by giving them plenty of time 
               to spawn. They seem to enjoy this extra time to. :>
               The main thing about the lighting is that due to fixing various
               cooling problems I was increasing the length of the metal
               halide cycles. In the current setup each metal halide 
               is on for a total of 12 hours. It had been only a 9 hour 
               cycle when I first introduced this coral to the tank. The 
               coral was purchased in december of 91 and initially placed
               15 " below the actual metal halide bulb. Note - my bulbs
               are very close to the tank top, which was causing my heat
               problems. The coral was moved to the bottom of the tank 24"
               below the bulb. Just before increasing the light cycle the
               coral was moved to its present location. 5" below bulb, 5"
               behind bulb and 2" to left. This is a very high perch in the
               back of my tank. The coral seemed to really enjoy this due
               to the fact that it expanded in size larger then it ever had.
               On 2/12/92 the metal halide light cyle was increased from
               9 hour periods to 10 hour periods. On 2/22/92 from 10 hours
               to 11 hours. On 3/4/92 from 11 hours to 12 hours. Then on
               3/12/92 the coral spawned. I did not collect these eggs cause
               I had no idea what the white balls floating in the milky film
               was. The tank was stagnate at the time because I was waiting
               for centropyge to pellagically spawn. The next day while no
               current was moving in the tank I was walking by the coral and
               witnessed what could best be described as a geyser spawn. 
               About 10 - 16 geysers all shoot up from each mouth that the
               open brain coral has. All geysers occurred simultaneouslly
               and it gave me the impression that this was some kind of
               steam engine machine. Very strange. I collectted the white eggs
               that were floating in the film and have hatched them. I will
               post details later. This is just a short article describing
               what may have led to the spawn. The coral spawned a few more 
               times but these were more like slow release spawns that took
               many minutes to complete.
 More details to follow.
   PS - I believe that the 2 main things that led to spawn were.
         - Moving coral to high perch were plenty of light was received and
           plenty of current was felt.
         - Increasing the metal halide light cycle time from 9 hours to 12 
           hours over a 30 day period. Ie - the brain coral thought summer
           had arrived or was arriving.

  Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder.


(M) (Now Coral Spawning)

by kvk/questor.sw.stratus.com (Ken Koellner)
Date: 25 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

I remember seeing something about corals spawning at the Great Barrier
Reeef aq. in Australia.  I don't remember where, probably a
documentary on TDC or something like that.  From what I remember,
there was some kind of coral that spawned in the ocean in that area
only one night a year.  The conditions of the aq. so well duplicated
the natural conditions in the ocean that the coral in the aq. spawned
at the same time as the coral in the ocean.  Supposedly, photoperiod
is one of the key factors.  The aq. had the same photoperiod as the
real ocean.  I forget the specs on this aq but its a huge huge reef aq
with clear tunnels you can walk through to look at the reef.  It's
like a whole section of reef moved from the ocean flow to a very large
aq.

Anyone know any thing about this aq and the coral spawning there?

-- 
Prohibition goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control
a man's appetite by legislation and makes crimes out of things that are not
crimes. A prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principles upon which our
government was founded. - Abraham Lincoln


(M) (Now Coral Spawning)

by frazier/oahu.cs.ucla.edu (Greg Frazier)
Date: Fri, 27 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

kvk-at-questor.sw.stratus.com (Ken Koellner) writes:

>I remember seeing something about corals spawning at the Great Barrier
>Reeef aq. in Australia.
>The aq. had the same photoperiod as the real ocean.

If this is the same aquarium that I am remembering, then it
is open-roofed and uses sunlight for lighting, hence the same
photoperiod.
-- 


Greg Frazier	frazier-at-CS.UCLA.EDU	!{ucbvax,rutgers}!ucla-cs!frazier


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 26 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria


 Here is the specs of the tank were a Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi (Open Brain
 Coral) has spawned. Tank is an 180 gallon reef with 2 center overflow
 chambers, trickle filter, 5 foot protein skimmer, uv sterilizer and
 ozone generator.
 Water parameters - Dissolved Oxygen 6.6 ppm, DKH 13.3 degree,
                     nitrate < 1.1 ppm NO3, phosphate < 0.05 ppm,
                     temperature in morning 77 degrees F,
                     temperature at end of day 78 degrees F,
                     salinity (I will check into this and report current
                               value and any trend that may have occurred)
  Calcium - greater then 400 ppm. Tested via lamotte test kit.
  Trends in water parameters -
       I had just recently raised my reef KH due to an article in a tat
    book. Here is the history of the reef kh trend leading to spawning.
        2/9/92  DKH = ~7    2/16/92 DKH = 7.7   2/18/92 DKH = 9.1
        2/19/92 DKH = 11.9  2/21/92 DKH = 14    2/29/92 DKH = 11.9
        3/1/92  DKH = 12.6  3/2/92  DKH = 13.3  3/3/92 DKH = 12.6
        3/5/92  DKH = 13.3  3/8/92  DKH = 13.3 
           spawning started to occur on 3/13/92. Stopped monitoring
           reef KH cause I determined how to stable it at 13.3. 
           Testing performed with TAT and dupla test kits. This info
           was entered just for completeness in reporting the spawn. 
           I have no idea if this helped induce the spawning and I was
           trying to see how the reef would run at a higher KH. I have
           to add reef KH on an almost daily basis to maintain this level. 
  Trends in salinty -
                    Value has remained constant at 1.022. I add a little
                    less then 1 gallon of fresh twice per day. My top
                    plexiglass covers have been removed for cooling and 
                    oxygen exchange.
  Trends in dissolved oxygen -
                    Readings taken with lamotte test kits.
                     2/12/92  Dissolved oxygen = 6.5 ppm 
                     2/17/92  Dissolved oxygen = 6.6 ppm 
                     3/1/92  Dissolved oxygen = 6.2 ppm 
                         note- this value may vary a lot in a reef.
  Special trends in temperature -
                    2/2/92 to 2/5/92 tank got very hot due to an ambient
                    air conditioning problem and very hot weather in LA.
                    This is what starting my attempts at cooling. I have
                    run tubing threw my kitchen freezer and removed top
                    covers of tank. Temperature then dropped down to 74
                    -76 3 weeks before spawn and then I slowly raised it
                    up to 76-77 and now its 77-78. My fish seem to spawn
                    less at the lower temperature. Im trying to find a 
                    medium value where both can be happy. The coral spawned
                    when temperature was stable at 76-77. Rising up from
                    74-76.
 Additives - KH, Kalkwaser, reef calcium, reef ksm, tat ksm, liquid gold,
             tech iodine, tat marine vitamins, macro algae iron, marine
             plant food.
 Water used - Mostly tap filtered 6 times in magnum cartridge. 
              Coconut carbon, xnitrate, metal gone, xphosphate, poly filters
              and micron filter. Some real ocean used during water changes.
              10 gallons changed per week. About 5 percent.
 Chemical Medium - Coconut carbon, xnitrate, xphosphate, poly filters.
 Salt Mix used - Reef Crystals. I have recently switched to tropic marine.
                  This brand works better with 2.4 mm centropyge plankton
                  protolarvae. Much clearer water. The added calcium in
                  reef crystals is not good for plankton sized organisms.

 Food used - some corals (including open brain) feed frozen krill soaked
             with a couple drops of selcon about every 2 weeks. Live rotifer
             and baby brine put in tank daily. This is for a species of 
             anthias which requires this food. Various other fish foods.

 Light cycle - The current light cycle is listed below.
               8:00 am    2 - 140 watt actinic tubes comes on.
               8:30 am    1 - 175 watt metal halide on right comes on.
               9:30 am    1 - 175 watt metal halide in center comes on.
               10:30 am   1 - 175 watt metal halide on left comes on.
               8:30 pm    1 - 175 watt metal halide on right turns off.
               9:30 pm    1 - 175 watt metal halide in center turns off.
               10:30 pm   1 - 175 watt metal halide on left turns off.
               12:00 am   2 - 140 watt actinic tubes turn off.
              
               This is how all the timers are set. I usually turn off the  
               actinics by hand and dont do so till 1 or 2 am. This helps
               induce spawning of reef fishes by giving them plenty of time 
               to spawn. They seem to enjoy this extra time to. :>
               The main thing about the lighting is that due to fixing various
               cooling problems I was increasing the length of the metal
               halide cycles. In the current setup each metal halide 
               is on for a total of 12 hours. It had been only a 9 hour 
               cycle when I first introduced this coral to the tank. The 
               coral was purchased in december of 91 and initially placed
               15 " below the actual metal halide bulb. Note - my bulbs
               are very close to the tank top, which was causing my heat
               problems. The coral was moved to the bottom of the tank 24"
               below the bulb. Just before increasing the light cycle the
               coral was moved to its present location. 5" below bulb, 5"
               behind bulb and 2" to left. This is a very high perch in the
               back of my tank. The coral seemed to really enjoy this due
               to the fact that it expanded in size larger then it ever had.
               On 2/12/92 the metal halide light cyle was increased from
               9 hour periods to 10 hour periods. On 2/22/92 from 10 hours
               to 11 hours. On 3/4/92 from 11 hours to 12 hours. Then on
               3/12/92 the coral spawned. I did not collect these eggs cause
               I had no idea what the white balls floating in the milky film
               was. The tank was stagnate at the time because I was waiting
               for centropyge to pellagically spawn. The next day while no
               current was moving in the tank I was walking by the coral and
               witnessed what could best be described as a geyser spawn. 
               About 10 - 16 geysers all shoot up from each mouth that the
               open brain coral has. All geysers occurred simultaneouslly
               and it gave me the impression that this was some kind of
               steam engine machine. Very strange. I collectted the white eggs
               that were floating in the film and have hatched them. I will
               post details later. This is just a short article describing
               what may have led to the spawn. The coral spawned a few more 
               times but these were more like slow release spawns that took
               many minutes to complete.
 More details to follow.
   PS - I believe that the 2 main things that led to spawn were.
         - Moving coral to high perch were plenty of light was received and
           plenty of current was felt.
         - Increasing the metal halide light cycle time from 9 hours to 12 
           hours over a 30 day period. Ie - the brain coral thought summer
           had arrived or was arriving.

 Special note on lighting - I have started to provide moonlight at night
             with an overhanging incandescent chandilier. My tank records
             where not updated with the light levels during spawning.
 Special equipment added - 2/1/92 I added a sandpoint solution ground.
                   My reef fish have been suffering from head rot. This 
                   is now subsiding.
 Diseases in tank - Mild infestation of ick. Have ozone generator and UV
                  sterilizer running to erradicate the parasite. Only a
                  few white spots occasionally on fish. A mild case of this
                  disease does not prevent them from spawning.
 Special note on Open Brain Coral -
                This specimen was purchased with a small receded spot about
                the size of a nickel. Otherwise it was in excellent condition
                and purchased anyway. The spot has healed down to the size
                of a dime. Apparentlly, this has not affected the species
                ability to spawn. When fully expanded the spot is not visible.
                Please be careful if you decide to reposition your specimen.
                Using scientific names can be very misleading and in this
                case insufficient. Not all specimens of this species need 
                the same light requirements. They vary in color and size and
                shape and original location on the reef. The best guide is to
                move specimens around in your tank once every couple of
                weeks and see how they react. If they expand larger then ever
                before, you have found the location that this soecimen likes.
                When expanded the open brain coral is greater then 5 " in
                diameter.  The specimen has a bright green color in valleys
                and flesh tones on ridges. 
 This is a complete listing of parameters for the reef tank where this species
 has spawn. Later to follow, will be detailed accounts of the spawn , eggs
 hatching and hopefully maturing corals. Still to early to tell if I have 
 some forming open brain corals.
                
 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder  


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 29 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria


 Heres additional details on the light cycle patterns that were in the
180 gallon reef tank which had a open brain coral "geyser" spawn. I have
also included details on temperature trend and my new thoughts on KH.
Notes about charts 
  All Halides are 175 watt coralife 5500 kelvins.
  Timer values are what I tryed to set the timers to.
  Real values are actual time values. (Its hard to set my timers)
Note - The open brain coral that spawned is under the left metal halide.
       5 - 6 " below, 5" behind, 2" to left. Point of view is yours
       looking at tank.
A hot item in the future might be an accurate way to set or progam ac
outlets to come on at a certain time and remain on for a certain length
of time. I know I would buy one.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 9 Hour Cycle Time (Lights were limited due to heat they produced)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Light Source           Timer ON  Real ON  Timer OFF  Real OFF  Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Actinics (2-140w)      8:00 am            1:00 am               17
 Right Metal Halide    10:00 am            7:00 pm                9
 Center Metal Halide   11:00 am            8:00 pm                9
 Left Metal Halide     12:00 noon          9:00 pm                9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 10 Hour Cycle Time (For strong light demanding corals) - 2/12/92
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Light Source           Timer ON  Real ON  Timer OFF  Real OFF  Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Actinics (2-140w)      9:00 am  (9:05 am) 1:00 am               16
 Right Metal Halide    10:00 am  (9:55 am) 8:00 pm    (8:25 pm)  10
 Center Metal Halide   11:00 am            9:00 pm    (9:15 pm)  10
 Left Metal Halide     12:00 noon (12:22) 10:00 pm   (10:15 pm)  10
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 11 Hour Cycle Time (Ran tubing in freezer for extra cooling) - 2/22/92
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Light Source           Timer ON  Real ON  Timer OFF  Real OFF  Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Actinics (2-140w)      8:00 am           12:00 midn             16
 Right Metal Halide     9:00 am            8:00 pm               11
 Center Metal Halide   10:00 am            9:00 pm               11
 Left Metal Halide     11:00 am           10:00 pm               11
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 12 Hour Cycle Time (Ambient Air conditioning recharged) - 3/4/92
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Light Source           Timer ON  Real ON  Timer OFF  Real OFF  Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Actinics (2-140w)      8:00 am (8:05 am) 12:00 midn  (1-2 am)   17
 Right Metal Halide     8:30 am            8:30 pm    (8:54 pm)  12
 Center Metal Halide    9:30 am (9:32 am)  9:30 pm    (9:45 pm)  12
 Left Metal Halide     10:30 am           10:30 pm    (11:03 pm) 12
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 Open Brain coral first spawned on 3/13/92. Spawning was not observed
but eggs were seen floating on the surface. Over 50 eggs seen.
 Second spawning on 3/14/92 at 1:30am(technically 3/15) was actually
witnessed. As I was walking up to the tank looking toward the area were
I noticed the white balls the previous night, the open brain coral shot
geysers up to the surface. Each polyp mouth simultaneously released the
cloud of sperm and or eggs. They were from 10 - 16 geysers. It was an 
incredable sight I will never forget. Its hard to remember details when
your so stunned. The tank was stagnate at the time, because I was hoping
a pair of centropyge would spawn in the last hour of actinic lightness.
The entire surface of the tank was covered with white milky streams with
little white balls floating in them. The eggs are solid white and .4 mm 
in diameter. They were floating in a stream of milky film. Almost all were
collected. Further details to follow.
I believe that this was the actual spawning and what happened the night
before and following nights were not main spawnings. 
 Third  night 3/15 at 1:45 am (technically 3/16) another spawning occured
but the eggs were slowly released over a 30 minute period. All were
again collected. Over 100 eggs.
 Fourth nite 3/16. No spawning seen but about 15 eggs on surface.
 Fifth nite 3/17. No spawning seen but about 5 eggs on surface.
 Sixth nite 3/18. No spawning seen but about 5 eggs on surface.
 Seventh nite 3/19. No spawning and no eggs.
 Eigth nite 3/20. No spawning and no eggs.
 Ninth nite 3/20. No spawning and no eggs.
 Tenth nite 3/21. While watching TV at 9:30 pm (2 hours before twilight
    for the open brain coral) I noticed large round objects floating in
    middle of fully operating tank. I noticed that the open brain was
    releasing eggs again so I engaged my special pelagic egg collecting
    bypass. The coral slowly for about 1 hour, released clumps of eggs.
    The event was photographed and eggs collected. My opinion is that the
    coral was rejecting or cleaning out any eggs that remained from the
    main spaning.
 Coral then remained in a closed state until 3/27 when it started to 
 expand again.
It might be a good idea to set your tank into a natural rhythm with light
cycles increasing and then peaking and then decreasing again. This could
be done on a 3 or 4 month period. I wonder who might make a product like
this. Rhythmic light timers with period settings ?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Daily temperature readings leading up to spawn. First value is morning
 reading when hot lights first turn on and second value is night time 
 right after hot lights turn off. All readings in F.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 2/12/92  78.1 - 79.8   3/1/92   77.7 - 79.2
 2/13/92  77.7 - 79.2   3/2/92   77.8 - 79.3
 2/14/92  76.8 - 78.6   3/3/92   76.8 - 78.4
 2/15/92  76.6 - 78.2   3/4/92   76.1 - 73.5  * Ambient AC Fixed. Setting
 2/16/92  76.3 - 78.3                           was to low initially. Put
 2/17/92  75.7 - 78.1                           back up right after I took
 2/18/92  75.9 - 78.4                           this reading.
 2/19/92       - 78.7   3/5/92   74.3 - 76.2
 2/20/92  77.4 - 79     3/6/92   74.7 - 76.1
 2/21/92  76.8 - 79     3/7/92        - 76.3
 2/22/92  76.5 - 77.4   3/8/92        - 77
 2/23/92  75.5 - 77.8   3/10/92       - 77
 2/24/92  75.7 - 79.2   3/11/92       - 77
 2/25/92  77   - 79.6   3/13/92               * Coral started to spawn.
 2/26/92  77.6 - 79.8   3/19/92               * raised ambient air up 1 
 2/27/92  77.4 - 79.8                           degree to help stimulate 
 2/28/92  77.7 - 79.7                           fish spawns.
 2/29/92       - 78.3   3/20/92  75.8 - 77.7

  My gut feelings are that the low temperature swing which lasted on 3/4
followed by a slight rise was enough to make this coral think that water 
was warming generally. This combined with a increasing light cycle, is
what induced the coral to pelagically geyser spawn. Look at the real lite
values in cycle chart for left halide which was over coral. Just think
if you ever could induce more then 1 coral to spawn on the same day,
you would have a lot of eggs on your hand. 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 My KH value was checked again this weekend and it has drifted way up to
close to 18. I have determined that I can not control the values in a
stable fashion using reef KH and will try reef builder. My tank does
not look better then it did at a lower KH value. Dont know if the value
is at fault or value may be moving around to much.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 ps - currently have about 60 (6 day old) resplendant protolarve and have
      collected a couple hundred flame angelfish eggs just last night.
      I thought handling eggs from two reef fish was hard, now I am also
      trying to hatch and raise coral. Tough hobby :>
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by jamieo/gbrmpa.gov.au (Jamie Oliver)
Date: Sun, 29 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

I have been studying the spawning of corals on the Great Barrier Reef
in Australia for the last 10 years.  Although my colleagues 
and I have documented spawning
of over 150 species in situ, or in temporary aquaria, we do not have any
records from Trachyphyllia or from any species in the family (there are only
2).  The spawning behaviour described is very similar to what we have seen
in several faviid and mussid species.

The "hatching" described in the first note may not be genuine.  

(No Title)

by

The addition of artificial moonlight to the aquarium may be a critical
factor in inducing spawning. We have found that the corals almost all
spawn during a particular phase of the moon.  Some preliminary experiments
indicate that one can change the time of spawning by providing an altered
moonlight cylce.  This may have been the case with the Trachyphyllia. On
the Great Barrier Reef most faviids (close relatives) spawn during one or
2 nights in November or December (our spring).

I would be very interested to hear of any other records of spawning in 
aquaria.  Our experience here is that corals will spawn if kept in our closed
circuit aquaria for a month or so before spawning.  Longer periods seem to
inhibit spawning - presumabley due to suboptimal conditions.  Most of 
our aquarium spawning observations were from corals brought in from 
the field 3 - 5 hours before spawning.

The aquarium facility we have here is a public educational facility.  It
is composed of 2 main tanks: a reef tank of 2.5 million liters; and a smaller 
predator tank.  The main reef tank is open to the sky and gets normal sunlight
(except with shadecloth to keep temperature down) and moonlight. We use algal
scrubbers to keep the nutrient levels down.  Coral survivorship is variable.
Large fleshy polyped corals can survive for a year or more, but Acropora and
Pocilloporid corals only last a few months. We are currently conducting 
research to figure out how to improve conditions.

Jamie Oliver
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
Australia


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 30 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <1992Mar29.135254.8902-at-marlin.jcu.edu.au> jamieo-at-gbrmpa.gov.au (Jamie Oliver) writes:
>I have been studying the spawning of corals on the Great Barrier Reef
>in Australia for the last 10 years.  Although my colleagues 
>and I have documented spawning
>of over 150 species in situ, or in temporary aquaria, we do not have any
>records from Trachyphyllia or from any species in the family (there are only
>2).  The spawning behaviour described is very similar to what we have seen
>in several faviid and mussid species.
>
>The "hatching" described in the first note may not be genuine.  
>From the description and sizes given, it is more likely 
>that the eggs were bursting and releasing yolk droplets.  
>This happens frequently in aquaria if the water is not 
>agitated.  
   These observations were made on eggs that were set aside for microsocpic
 viewing and if memory serves me right they were not agitated as much as the
 main batch of eggs. I know that agitation is very important due to my many
 attempts to hatch centropyge eggs. I have learned threw trial and error
 that agitation needs to be incredibly strong for eggs to hatch.
   I can not see any normal growth path for the 12 - 25 micron spheres
 that were a result of what I thought was a hatching and what I currently
 see in the 6 seperate containers that house the hatched eggs. I am work-
 ing on the next posting to this thread and if you have time you can look at
 my descriptions of what I see in the various tanks. Please let me know
 if any of these are close to what you have observed. The article should
 be posted within the next few days.
  I am quite literally using a toy microscope so the sizes and descriptions
 may be a little fuzzy. A higher quality microscope is available and I 
 might borrow it from a friend of mine.

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 31 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <1770-at-transfer.stratus.com> kvk-at-questor.sw.stratus.com (Ken Koellner) writes:
>Could you describe what sort of containers you have these, 
>what sort of equipment is running them and what types of
>food or culture or growth is in them?
>
  Our friend at the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (Jamie Oliver),
has reviewed the last article I posted and says that organism #1 is probably
the coral larvae form. The other possiblity is that some marine protozoan
has started multiplying and feeding on old dead coral egg particles. For now
I will assume that this is the right one. Also, our modems went wacky and I
did not see articles 13279 to 13281. If anyone was asking me a question in
those posts please repost or send email.
 I will now describe the containers that I have set up for the coral larvae.
Also, if these turn out to be the real larvae, I may have more then I can
handle and may offer up specimens for anyone in southern cal. They are free
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 NOTE - Please dont overrun me with mail on this. If I decide that I cant 
        handle this many I will post a message in alt.aquaria.           
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
forms now but may soon start calcifing and locking into tank glass. They may
not be removable then until they get large enough to safely lift off the
glass. Mr. Oliver says that if these planulae start turning into semitrans-
parent disks, then they are definitly coral larvae and not a protozoan.
 To begin with, the containers I am using are very crude, very basic. I was
not set up to handle coral larvae. I was taking a gamble that they werent 
to demanding in this form. That may change when they start calcifying. Also,
when going over my tank log again I have discovered that I did retreive
a few of the eggs from that first night 3/13/92. Must have been just inter-
ested in what they were. This were the ones that were seen to spread apart
and pop up. I have also discovered these potential planulae in containers
that I had not seen them in previously.
 note - All eggs were hatched utilizing the method I previously posted. 
        After hatching they were transfered to the following containers.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 Containers
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 C1 - A 1 gallon glass jug. Water changes performed twice per week at 20
      percent each time. Airstone, rigid tube and filter floss stopper. 
      This batch of eggs came from the first spawn on 3/13/92. There are
      none of the potential planulae larvae in this container. Could have
      been unfertilized eggs but more likely that I did not aerate them
      enough. Jug is in within 1 inch of 2x48 inch flourescent strip shop-
      light.  With growlux full spectrum plant bulbs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 C2 - A 1 gallon glass jug. Water changes performed twice per week at 20
      percent each time. Airstone, rigid tube and filter floss stopper. 
      This batch of eggs came from the third spawn on 3/15/92. There are
      hundreds of the potential planulae larvae crawling in the diatom
      clumps on the bottom of the tank. It looks like they like to eat 
      golden brown , spear shaped diatoms that form colonial clusters
      on the bottoms of very well lighted older established aquaria. I 
      can start cultures of these diatoms fairly easily from my main
      tank. Jug is in within 1 inch of 2x48 inch flourescent strip shop-
      light.  With growlux full spectrum plant bulbs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 C3 - A 6 gallon aquaria tank. Water changes performed twice per week at 20
      percent each time. 2 Airstones and rigid tubing. This batch of eggs
      came from the first spawn on 3/13/92. There are no planulae larvae
      in this container. Again more likely that they were not aerated en-
      ough. Tank is under very low 2x48 inch flourescent strip shoplight.
      With a growlux full spectrum plant bulb and a special reef bulb I
      purchased just for them. Do not remeber the brand. 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 C4 - A 20 gallon aquaria tank. Water changes performed twice per week at 20
      percent each time. 2 Airstones, rigid tubing and heater. This batch  
      of eggs came from the second main spawn on 3/14/92. There are hundreds 
      of planulae larvae in this container. Tank is under very low 2x48 inch 
      flourescent strip shoplight. With a growlux full spectrum plant bulb. 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 C5 - A 10 gallon aquaria tank. Water changes performed twice per week at 20
      percent each time. 2 Airstones, rigid tubing and heater. This batch  
      of eggs came from the third main spawn on 3/15/92. There are a few of 
      the planulae larvae in this container. Tank is under very low 2x48 inch 
      flourescent strip shoplight. With a growlux full spectrum plant bulb 
      and a special reef bulb I purchased just for them. Do not remeber the
      brand. 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 C6 - A 1 gallon glass jug. Water changes performed twice per week at 20
      percent each time. Airstone, rigid tube and filter floss stopper. 
      This batch of eggs came from the last spawn on 3/22/92. There are
      a few of the potential planulae larvae in this container. Jug is 
      within 1 inch of 2x48 inch flourescent strip shoplight. With growlux
      full spectrum plant bulbs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 All water temps around 77.5. Have been adding reef calcium, reef ksm, 
 liquid gold, coral food(tat) and selcon on weekly basis. Am currently
 rearranging setup. Will empty C3 and put C2 contents into this 6 gallon
 tank. Will transfer some of C4 larvae into C5. I am currently thinking
 about how to handle the next stage. What type of filtering will be re-
 quired or should I at some point put them back in my main reef tank.
 Lots of possibilities.......
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
 More accurate description of Organism # 1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Day 1 -  Hatching. This is what I observed but it may turn out that this
         was yolk particles exploding. Like Mr. oliver has suggested.
         The eggs from the first spawn that I observed with a flashlight 
         and microscope broke into clumps. These were composed of numerous
         small spheres. Each clump had 100-200 spheres. These clumps then
         began to fall apart as the spheres seperated. About 1 minute after
         this each sphere poped or exploded to a sphere twice in size.
         Size was from 8 - 15 microns. Again, this may not have been the
         actual larvae hatching.

Day 2 -  Same spheres may have been observed to be 25 microns in diameter
         and have a white dot in the center. Following this observation
         these spheres were only possibly seen being surrounded by the spear
         shaped diatoms. These may correspond the the fact that they were
         egg yolks exploded and the spear diatoms were eating or absorbing
         the remains. At 1 point I though that the diatoms were formed by
         the spheres but dont beleive that now. After this I started to
         see what may be the planulae larvae.

Day 4 -  This has not been confirmed but may be some early form of the
         potential planulae larvae. Clear and mainly transparent. about
         50 microns long. Shaped like a hotdog or elongated elipse. It
         was crawling threw diatom clumps. It was crawling kind of like
         a worm. Stretching and contracting. 

Day 8 -  Basically like day 15 but it was smaller (100 microns to 125).
         At this stage it is still clear with lots of detail in center.

Day 13 - Again like day 15's description but smaller and now has turned
         red or brownish. Size is 150 - 250 microns.

Day 15 - It appears as a reddish or slightly brownish, wormlike slug.
         The potential planulae larvae seems to like crawling around in
         golden brown spear shaped diatom clumps. It streches its neck 
         almost to a sharp point to pick at parts of the diatoms. Like
         a giraffe streches to eat leaves from a tree. At full extension 
         it can strech to 200 or 250 microns. Seems to be gaining size at
         a steady rate. It appears fatish and eliptical in the center when 
         not streched. When in open water, appears to swim with numerous
         hairs or ciliates extending out from its perimeter. Swimming
         from one diatom clump to another, it then crawls into the clump
         and moves like a worm or slug while streaching its neck out to
         eat. The edge appears smooth almost making a nice very thin bor-
         der for the main body which has lots of dots or circles of detail.

Day ?  - According to Mr. Oliver the next stage will be quite different
         from this stage. I hope I can do the rearranging before this 
         change starts happening.
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 ps - will analyse this one some more tonight.

   Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer)
Date: 1 Apr 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <1770-at-transfer.stratus.com> kvk-at-questor.sw.stratus.com (Ken Koellner) writes:
>In article <1429-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:
>>
>> (Mr. Tyree describes appearance of larval critters in).
>
>Could you describe what sort of containers you have these, 
>what sort of equipment is running them and what types of
>food or culture or growth is in them?
>
I'll be awaiting steves answer too. My elegance coral spawn is
being kept in a breeder guppy net box. I was worried about constant
water flow around the eggs. Before the eggs hatched they were nicely
stuck into the mesh of the very fine fabric. According to Jamie
Oliver of the great barrier feef marine park authority the eggs will
break down if they aren't provided sufficient turbulence. 
Yesterday I spoke to Matt Cammaratta of TAT and he said that his
and Alberts experience was that they had captured eggs and placed
some in a closed glass vial. The next morning they had totally
disintegrated under microscopic inspection. As of yet they had
yet to have any grow. I believe a permeable material which allows
water molecules etc to pass through and eggs/larvae to not pass
through. Anyone have any ideas. This also may need additional turbulence
provided by mechanical means, maybe a magnetic stirrer at very low
speed? Any ideas would be appreciated, I find this net an invaluable
source of very bright people from a wide diversity of expertise
and always get good suggestions.

	Scott Schaeffer
	scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 5 Apr 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <29973-at-cbmvax.commodore.com> scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) writes:
>In article <1770-at-transfer.stratus.com> kvk-at-questor.sw.stratus.com (Ken Koellner) writes:
>>In article <1429-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:
>>>
>>> (Mr. Tyree describes appearance of larval critters in).
>>
>>Could you describe what sort of containers you have these, 
>>what sort of equipment is running them and what types of
>>food or culture or growth is in them?
>>
>I'll be awaiting steves answer too. My elegance coral spawn is
>being kept in a breeder guppy net box. I was worried about constant
>water flow around the eggs. Before the eggs hatched they were nicely
>stuck into the mesh of the very fine fabric. According to Jamie
>Oliver of the great barrier feef marine park authority the eggs will
>break down if they aren't provided sufficient turbulence. 
>Yesterday I spoke to Matt Cammaratta of TAT and he said that his
>and Alberts experience was that they had captured eggs and placed
>some in a closed glass vial. The next morning they had totally
>disintegrated under microscopic inspection. As of yet they had
>yet to have any grow. I believe a permeable material which allows
>water molecules etc to pass through and eggs/larvae to not pass
>through. Anyone have any ideas. This also may need additional turbulence
>provided by mechanical means, maybe a magnetic stirrer at very low
>
   Ok, I am installing a home brew reef tray farming system for the potential
planulae larvae that I have. What is driving me is that Im trying to keep
the little critters alive and possibly bring them to subadult form. My initial
conservative estimate is that I have at least 50,000 planulae larvae. It ap-
pears that my pelagic egg collection techniques and pelagic egg hatching method
might be to good in this case. I collected about 500 eggs and have possibly
ended up with 50,000 planulae. If this is true (should have verification of
spat coral formation by end of next week) then there are micro eggs within 
the macro egg. This may sound silly, but how in the world is this coral going
to keep propagating if it only release 500 planulae once per year. My cent-
ropyge fish do this every night (proto larvae).
  This is how you can hatch pelagic eggs and get about 95 percent hatch rates.
Collect all the eggs and remove them gently from the main tank. See my previous
posts on this one. Then put them in a 1/2 or 1 gallon goldfish bowl filled to
4/5 full. Aerate the heck out of them overnight. By the following evening the
eggs will be hatched and all planulae or protolarvae will be setting their in
the goldfish bowl. Now you must move them to a better environment asap. Their
are 2 methods. Put them in small (10-20) tanks with lots of lighting, or put
them back in your main tank. This is a basic overview of how you can recover
and hatch 90 percent of all pelagic eggs released. But like I said, with 100's
of eggs and thousands of planulae this may be to good of a procedure . :>

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder
  ps - I could put together an article with detailed info describing this, but
       it would take a few days and how many people are interested ?
     - The fact that I have 50,000 planulae mught correspond with my initial
       observation that I saw clumps of small spheres in the fragments of the
       eggs after they fell apart the following morning. These spheres grew
       in size and possibly hatched the next day. With 100 - 200 spheres per
       egg, these could give the number 50,000. Which is what I count. Now
       if these really are planulae, what next ?


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by jamieo/gbrmpa.gov.au (Jamie Oliver)
Date: 5 Apr 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria


steve-at-celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) writes:
>My initial
>conservative estimate is that I have at least 50,000 planulae larvae. It ap-
>pears that my pelagic egg collection techniques and pelagic egg hatching method
>might be to good in this case. I collected about 500 eggs and have possibly
>ended up with 50,000 planulae. If this is true (should have verification of
>spat coral formation by end of next week) then there are micro eggs within 
>the macro egg. This may sound silly, but how in the world is this coral going
>to keep propagating if it only release 500 planulae once per year. My cent-
>ropyge fish do this every night (proto larvae).
>  This is how you can hatch pelagic eggs and get about 95 percent hatch rates.
>Collect all the eggs and remove them gently from the main tank. See my previous
>posts on this one. Then put them in a 1/2 or 1 gallon goldfish bowl filled to
>4/5 full. Aerate the heck out of them overnight. By the following evening the
>eggs will be hatched and all planulae or protolarvae will be setting their in
>the goldfish bowl. Now you must move them to a better environment asap. Their
>are 2 methods. Put them in small (10-20) tanks with lots of lighting, or put
>them back in your main tank. This is a basic overview of how you can recover
>and hatch 90 percent of all pelagic eggs released. But like I said, with 100's
>of eggs and thousands of planulae this may be to good of a procedure . :>

>     - The fact that I have 50,000 planulae mught correspond with my initial
>       observation that I saw clumps of small spheres in the fragments of the
>       eggs after they fell apart the following morning. These spheres grew
>       in size and possibly hatched the next day. With 100 - 200 spheres per
>       egg, these could give the number 50,000. Which is what I count. Now
>       if these really are planulae, what next ?


I hate to say this, but I'd bet my boots that you have a bloom of prtotozoans
rather than developing planulae. The size is on the small side for planulae, 
and there's no way you can get 50,000 from only 500 eggs.  Also, based on my 
experience raising larvae from other families, the planulae start to settle
out on the sides of the container in a big way after about five days... 
that time has well and truly passed.  Another thing working against the 
possiblility that they are planulae is that none of the planulae that I hvae
worked with have ever shown sides of feeding.  I've read one report of a 
temperate coral planulae feeding but never any of the tropical reef corals.


(No Title)

by

For anyone else trying to raise planulae, the method we have used is to put
the eggs into small containers with a screwtop lid (plastic). The entire top
of the lid should be cut away, leaving just a threaded rim.  Take a piece of
fine gauze (we use 100micron plankton mesh - but nylon mesh gauze similar 
to the material that is use in your typical small dip net used in pet store
would probably do) and place it over the lid of the container and use the
threaded rim to screw it into place covering the opening.  We then chuck the 
container into the sea and tether it to a buoy.  That way there natural
agitation and water exchange throught the gauze. This technique might work
in a large aquarium using a small container and lots of agitation in the
aquarium to keep the container rocking gently. The trick is to obtain gentle
but random agitation so that the eggs are kept moving, but don't all 
accumulate at one place in the container. You may be able to figure something
better - we have only occaisonally use this technique in aquaria since we 
ususally carry out our experiemnts within waling distance of the shore.

By the way, the eggs never "hatch", they simple start to devide into 2, then
4, then 8 cell etc...  If the eggs are fertilized you can see the two cell
stage with the naked eye (but only just) about 3hours after spawning.

For those of you with access to an academic library, you may find the 
following references useful:


Babcock, R.C. & A.J. Heyward 1986.  Larval development of certain gamete 
spawning scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs 5:111-116.


Wallace, C.C., Babcock, R.C., Harrison, P.L., Oliver, J.K. & 
Willis, B.L. (1986). Sex on 
the reef: mass spawning of corals.  Oceanus 29(2):38-42.

 Harrison, P.L., Babcock, R.C., Bull, G.D., Oliver, J.K., Wallace, C.C. 
& Willis, B.L. 
(1983).  Mass spawning in tropical reef corals.  Science 223:1186-1189.

Willis, B.L., Babcock, R.C., Harrison, P.L., 
Oliver, J.K. & Wallace, C.C.  (1985).  
Patterns in the mass spawning of corals on the Great Barrier Reef 
from 1981 to 
1984. Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Congr. 4:343-348.

Babcock, R.C., Bull, G.D., Harrison, P.L., Heyward, A.J., 
Oliver, J.K., Wallace, C.C. 
& Willis, B.L. (1986).  Synchronous spawnings of 105 scleractinian 
species on the 
Great Barrier Reef.  Marine Biology 75:379-394.

Hope this helps ......

Don't get discouraged .... as far as I can tell, the amateur aquarist
are way ahead of us marine biologists in keeping corals going in 
closed circuit aquaria.  I'm still trying to figure out why we
don't have better success with our big 2.5 megaliter job here...



-- 


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Jamie Oliver				Managing Australia's Great Barrier Reef


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 6 Apr 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <1992Apr5.110458.17671-at-gbrmpa.gov.au> jamieo-at-gbrmpa.gov.au (Jamie Oliver) writes:
>
>I hate to say this, but I'd bet my boots that you have a bloom of prtotozoans
>rather than developing planulae. The size is on the small side for planulae, 
>and there's no way you can get 50,000 from only 500 eggs.  Also, based on my 
>experience raising larvae from other families, the planulae start to settle
>out on the sides of the container in a big way after about five days... 
>that time has well and truly passed.  Another thing working against the 
>possiblility that they are planulae is that none of the planulae that I hvae
>worked with have ever shown sides of feeding.  I've read one report of a 
>temperate coral planulae feeding but never any of the tropical reef corals.
>
>From everything you have written, I would say that your eggs disintegrated
>shortly after spawning.
>
 Jamie, Thanks for the response and references on spawning. It looks like I
definitely have some kind of protozoan bloom, but I havent given up hope yet.
Its possible that the planulae were hidden in the protozoan bloom. Also their
may be two types of protozoan or more. Some have pointy ends and eat, their 
are thousands of these. Others have round ends and are more eliptical, I have
hundreds of these. Last night and for the next couple of days I will search
all containers holding the eggs to see what else I have. I do have some small
semitransparent disks in one or more containers. One container has way to many
of these and they appear to be budding more semitransparent disks. These disk
are on the walls of the container but I need to look at one under the micro-
scope. In most containers the protozoan blooms have crawled up the sides. One
tank has groups of protozoan turning blackish. Under a microscope they appear
to be either transforming or growing into more rounded shapes. Some protozoan
start swimming in tight circles and form spheres. Lots of life forms to check
out. 
 It appears that the micro world of our reef aquaria is just as fascinating
as the macro world. Hopefully I will be able to find the time to read one of
the references you gave. This might help me in my continuing search.

Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder

 ps - Its possible that the conditions of the rearing tanks are slowing the 
      planulae normal life cycle. Like I said before, I wasnt set up to 
      handle coral eggs at the time. I will be more prepared next time...


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 7 Apr 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria


 While searching the containers I put the developed coral eggs in, I have
found 2 organisms which might correspond to developing spat (early coral
form). The descriptions of these lifeforms will follow. This information is
being sent to the net to keep anyone interested, informed and up to date with
what I have seen. I am fairly certain that #1 is not coral but #2 shows some
possibilities. I am still searching and will note any other likely candidates
I find.
 Organism #1 - Thousands in one container and a few in another. Semitrans-
               parent disk with some detail and a spot in circle. I dont 
               think that this is spat. Their are to many and they appear to
               be developing from very small disks, like about 10 microns.
               Current size is 10 - 200 microns. They also have a very long
               thread sticking out from the center.
 Organism #2 - Like I previously stated their are thousands of protozoans in
               these containers. Their is definitely more then one type of 
               protozoan. Two types are brownish/red and appear as 250 micron
               sized wormlike slugs. Another type is white and like a slug.
               Some have pointed ends and appear to eat, others have rounded 
               ends and may not eat. In a 20 gallon tank I have which has been
               under 24 hour lighting, groups of protozoans are turning black-
               ish on the tank walls. When I examine these under the micro-
               scope they appear to be transforming or mutating into different
               forms which are sphere shaped. I have seen spheres form in the
               center with the ends protruding out. Also some have developed
               extensions protruding out. Why they like to do this in groups
               is beyond me. I have also seen sphere shaped protozoans made
               from the same body material that the reddish brown protozoans
               have. These could be the completely transformed protozoan or
               a new protozoan. I will list the options below.

               1 - Sphere shape protozoan is a new protozoan and not spat.
               2 - Transformation could actually be the protozoans under attack
                   by some type of predator.
               3 - Protozoans could be dying or transforming into another non-
                   coral stage which would mean that they are not coral.
               4 - Sphere shape could be transforming of planulae to spat. Still
                   to early to tell. The development into spat could have been
                   slowed by inadequate illumination, this is the only tank 
                   which has 24 hour lighting. Will put other tanks on 24 light
                   cycle. 

Note - The blooming protozoans has made finding possible planulae or spat very
       difficult. This is why I am posting this information for possible review
       or comment. Also it may help current or future coral breeders.

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


(M)Spawning of Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 8 Apr 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria


 This is a posting describing observations made on the containers which
developing coral eggs were put in. I had to restart thread due to local
computer problems.
 Have been watching Organism #2, the transforming protozoans which are turn-
ing into circular disks. Some further observations will be listed below. I
am still puzzled as to what these are. 

 - More then half of the wormlike protozoans are turning blackish in a 20
   gallon tank. In a 10 gallon tank, about 25 percent have transformed and
   others are following. None of the protozoan in the 2-1 gallon jugs I have
   are transforming yet.
 - Its possible that this wormlike protozoan transforms into a circular proto-
   zoan at a certain stage in its life cycle.
 - Some small white dots or disks are starting to form on tank glass walls in
   area of blackish transforming protozoan. Will try to collect some tonight
   for micro viewing.
 - If most or half of these are really planulae then I run into the following 
   problems with my prior observations.

     1 - Egg count 500, planulae count 50,000. I did not actually count them  
         while I was collecting them. It was more of a guess based on collect-
         ing and counting fish pelagic eggs from before. Its possible that I
         could have been off by a factor up to 10. Result of max error margin
         would be 5,000 eggs. Planulae count was guessed at after counting
         and transferring 10,000 planulae. This was about 1/2 to 1/3 of the
         total in a certain container. Another container had a lot to. End
         results of error margins 5,000 eggs and 30,000 planulae. Its possible
         that half or less of these protozoans are planulae.
     2 - Planulae observed to be eating colonial diatoms. I saw them crawling
         around diatoms and they appeared to me to be eating. Its possible
         that only a certain percentage of the protozoan were eating and 
         others were not. 
     3 - Why they waited so long before transforming. Possible environmental
         problems in rearing tanks could have delayed the change.

 - The main question I have right now is. Are there worm/slug like protozoans
   which transform at a certain stage in their life to circular shaped proto-
   zoans ? They can move or wiggle a little bit right now. Its still right 
   after transforming. They are from 50 - 150 microns in diameter.
 - Will concentrate all micro observations on these circular protozoans and
   try to discover what they are or what they are doing.
 
Note - With all the life forms and transformations going on in my rearing 
       tanks, I still havent given up hope that their might be planulae or
       spat somewhere in their. I would be happy if just one made it through,
       so I could become familiar with their appearence.

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


(M) "Reef Breeding - Techniques and Practices"

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 30 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

========================================================================
  Call for Open Discussion on "Reef Breeding" Techniques and Practices.
=========================================================================
  Section  3  of  3
=========================================================================
  Summary of Authors Reef Tank System and Breeding Attempts. 
=========================================================================
     Setting up authors Reef Tank System.  
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
  My 180 gallon reef tank system was setup in December of 1990. Due to
 financial restrictions, a bare minimum of live rock was used and this
 caused the break in period to be extended. Sea anenomes and sturdy coral
 specimens were slowly added. Then the long road to finding a compatible 
 pair of centropyge angels was begun. The first reef fish to spawn were
 centropyge resplendens and this occurred in July of 1991. Only after
 verifying that spawning was occurring, did I begin to utilize my hardware 
 modifications and pelagic egg collection techniques. These techniques 
 should not be used to induce spawning and should only be utilized to 
 collect eggs from a spawn or expected spawn. In nature, corals spawn 
 very rarely, but when they due it usually last for a short period of    
 days. Once a pair of marine reef fish starts spawning, certain species
 can spawn every night. The collection techniques will stress the system
 a little and if abused could put lots of stress on the reef trickle
 filter system. When used properly, these techniques can help the filter
 system by removing eggs that could otherwise pollute the reef tank.
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     Spawning History in authors Reef Aquarium. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
  My current breeding attempts are focused on three species of marine reef 
 fish. A trio of Centropyge Loriculus which try to spawn every night but, 
 the smaller female seems a little shy and the larger one rarely seems 
 interested. When a complete spawn occurs, from 150 to 500 pelagic eggs 
 are released. The other spawning pair is Centropyge Resplendens. It took
 awhile to produce a compatible pair, but they now perform spawning dances 
 every night. They have on average 4 complete spawns per week and release
 from 120 to 400 eggs per spawn. The other reef fish species consists of
 a school of Pseudanthias Ventralis Ventralis. This school includes at 
 least 3 females, but they have yet to spawn. These fish eat plankton and
 pelagic fish eggs in nature and can be used to clean or eat unwanted egg
 spawns or as spawning alarms. They go absolutely nuts if a spawn occurs  
 and the lights must be turned off immediately if any eggs are to be re-
 covered that night. This tank also has a medium stocking of various soft 
 and stony corals. An open brain coral, Trachophylliia Geoffroyi has spawn-
 ed recently in the tank. Pelagic egg layers release hundreds of eggs every 
 spawn. During a recent Saturday I collected 250 eggs from a slow release
 coral spawn and then 1.5 hours later collected 250 eggs from a centropyge
 spawn. Both times, water circulation was rerouted manually immediately 
 after observing the spawn. This has me starting to worry about egg pollu-
 ton. In this respect im pleased that the anthias love to eat excess fish 
 eggs and the centropyge will eat some coral eggs.
  Below is a listing of pelagic egg and protolarvae counts I have logged
 on a monthly basis. The first few months, only collected eggs were count-
 ed due to my inadequate hatching rates.
     August 91    -   200 Eggs     Centropyge Resplendens
     September 91 - 1,971 Eggs     Centropyge Resplendens
     October 91   - 4,357 Eggs     Centropyge Resplendens
                  -   410 Eggs     Centropyge Loriculus
     November 91  - 1,100 Eggs     Centropyge Resplendens
  I then perfected a method for hatching the pelagic eggs and thus only
 counted the number of successfully hatched centropyge protolarvae.
     November 91  -   375 Larvae   Centropyge Resplendens
     December 91  - 1,040 Larvae   Centropyge Resplendens
                  -   150 Larvae   Centropyge Loriculus
     January 92   -   640 Larvae   Centropyge Resplendens
                  -   380 Larvae   Centropyge Loriculus
  These figures were put in this article for the sole purpose of showing
 that pelagic egg collection has indeed been occurring in a captive reef
 tank. It was at this point that I realized that the initial food was not
 acceptable, so I stopped collecting pelagic eggs during the month of Feb-
 uary. A large phytoplankton dinoflagellate was ordered from a culture 
 center and marine infusoria cultures were started from the main reef 
 tank. The anthias school was added during this period along with more
 live coral and a rearranging of the reef by adding more live rock from
 another reef tank. In early march 1992 I started to try collecting pelagic
 eggs again and had problems hatching them. After solving this difficulty
 I am currently starting to collect and hatch centropyge eggs again. Hope-
 fully my new food cultures will work with the centropyge larvae. These
 are some of the smallest larvae amongst reef fish species.
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     Hardware Modification for Pelagic Egg Collection. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
  My reef tank was purchased and installed with the intent of eventually
 collecting pelagically released eggs. The lighting system consists of
 3 - 175 watt metal halide bulbs and 2 - 140 watt actinic tubes. The lamp
 ballast permits four distinct light cycles to occur. The actinics are
 used to simulate twilight hours. Your system should have a properly 
 sized trickle filter, medium to large sized protein skimmer and ball
 valves in all return lines going back to the main tank. The hardware
 modification is not extensive and consists of installing a tee and valve 
 in line after the main pump and before any water return splits or tees.
 Attach a hose from the valve and connect the other end to the top of
 your biological chamber next to the main tank overflow chamber line.
 This plumbing was done on my tank by the aquarium stores installation 
 technician. I had to explain what I wanted about 5 times before it was 
 properly done. This and the expression on his face when I told him that 
 I was going to collect pelagic eggs with this setup, lead me to believe 
 that this was'nt done very often. The modification will allow you to man-
 ually loop water from the sump and main pump through the biochamber and
 remainder of the trickle filter. When the valve is turned you should  
 have a closed loop through the trickle filter separate from the main 
 tank. The water in the main tank will be stagnant at this point so it   
 should only be done during the short spawning time or right after a
 spawn has occurred, so that you can collect the eggs. This setup has
 allowed me to collect marine reef fish pelagic eggs and marine coral 
 pelagic eggs. This modification will keep water flowing threw the bio-
 chamber of the trickle filter via a closed loop. The bacteria colonies
 in this chamber will be kept alive by the water flow. With hundreds
 of eggs being released by the pelagic spawners, it could take up to
 half an hour to collect the eggs. The stagnant period in the main tank
 might be equivalent to the high tide midpoint on a natural reef, which
 happens to be a very good time to for reef species to spawn. Because of 
 the closed nature of an aquarium system you should keep this stagnant 
 period to a bare minimum of time. Don't worry about the affects of using
 these techniques if you are initiating them to collect the eggs, the pol-
 ution from the hundreds of eggs may be worse for your tank.
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     Pelagic Egg Collection Techniques. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
  The following section assumes you have the pelagic modification install-
 ed or have some equivalent method or setup. Almost all reef species
 which spawn pelagically, usually do so during a short interval at the 
 end of twilight evening hours. This helps make the task of collecting
 pelagically released eggs a very simple one. Before implementing these
 techniques, you should wait until you have verified that a reef species 
 is releasing pelagic eggs in your reef system.
  The safest routine requires you to watch your reef during the night
 time twilight spawning period and as soon as a spawn is seen, turn on
 the main tank bypass system. This will send water to the biochamber and
 then you should close the ball valves in the tank return lines. Water
 should then be stagnant in the main tank and looping separately in the
 biological filter. You might also turn off uv sterilizing and ozone
 production just to be safe. Wait about 5 - 10 minutes for all the eggs
 to settle and float up to the surface. You should be able to recover at
 least half the eggs if you are fast enough. When pelagic fish spawn they
 may make many attempts or rises, but the one that counts will have a
 white cloud rising up from the pair at the spawning peak. If some reef
 inhabitants start to eat the fish eggs, you can shut off the tank lights
 right away.
  The pelagically released eggs should then be floating on the waters
 surface. A hand flashlight can be used to locate these white or colored
 coral eggs and clear and transparent fish eggs. While holding the flash-
 light at the correct angle to the waters surface, all the eggs can be
 seen and collected with a clear drinking glass. It will take a while 
 for you to learn the technique of scooping eggs without scattering them
 across the surface. Collecting pelagic eggs with this method is easier
 then trying to retrieve demersally attached eggs. While using this tech-
 nique I have recovered and hatched thousands of pelagic centropyge eggs,
 which have been documented with hand written logs going back to august 
 of 1991. Recently, I collected more then 500 pelagic open brain coral 
 eggs during a 3 day spawn. No eggs were recovered on the first day of
 the coral spawning because I didn't see the spawn and could not figure
 out what the white balls floating in a film of milky substance was.
 After witnessing the second day spawn, I started to collect these eggs. 
  A second technique can be used if multiple spawns want to be recovered
 or if you cant keep an eye on the tank for an hour or two. I have en-
 gaged the bypass from 1 to 2 hours before the night time twilight period
 concludes. During this period intense spawning dances by the reef fish
 can be observed and corals might spawn during this period of the light
 cycle. My night twilight period is longer then the morning twilight pe-
 riod, this provides the reef specimens with more spawning time. The
 reef fish which spawn seem to enjoy this extra time. When using this
 technique please follow the cautions listed in the next section.
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
     Cautions to observe while using Pelagic Egg Collection Techniques.
------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
  My aquarium has a slightly oversized trickle filter and a 5 foot tall
 protein skimmer. This permits me to stop circulation from the main tank
 for 1 to 2 hours during on average 4 night twilight periods per week.
 My water parameters have remained stable and are extremely good. If
 your reef tank has an undersized trickle filter or undersized protein
 skimmer or is overstocked with specimens, I do not recommend turning off
 the circulation for a 1 to 2 hour period. You could watch your tank
 during the spawning period and manually engage the bypass following a
 spawning. This should allow you to recover at least half the pelagic eggs.
 Alternatively, you could try to recover eggs on only 3 nights per week
 while using a 1 hour stagnate period. If you do use these tech-
 niques, test your water parameters so you know if you are asking to much
 from your filter system. It will take your reef fish a few stagnant per-
 iods before they are comfortable with the lack of current. They will
 eventually begin to recognize this as spawning time. With a properly
 running reef tank, which is not overstocked and has more then enough
 biological filtration, you can collect all pelagic eggs released on any
 night you choose. I returned home one recent night at about 1:05 am,
 walked over to my reef tank and engaged the bypass. 5 Minutes later my
 pair of Centropyge Respledens spawned, then by 1:20am I had recovered
 all the eggs and put the tank circulation back to normal. Its all a
 simple matter of timing.  
=========================================================================
  Reef Breeding Conclusions.
=========================================================================
   This original article could be followed up with more specific topics
  or expansions to the information contained within. Listed below are 
  some ideas for topics of future articles I might post.

        - The long road to becoming a reef breeder.
        - A reef system designed to collect pelagically released eggs.
        - Creating an marine infusoria culture from your reef tank.
        - How to locate and order from a plankton culture center.
        - Easy methods for high percent hatch rates of pelagic eggs.
        - Observations of the spawning of Trachyphylliia Geoffroyi
                   (Open Brain Coral) (currently being drafted). 
        - Attempts at hatching and rearing Open Brain Coral eggs.
                                      (currently being drafted).
        - Inexpensive multitank setup for marine larvae.
        - How to set up a coral reef tray based farming system ?
        - Reliable ways to cultivate microalgae and marine rotifers.
        - Cultivating attempts for a large phytoplankton dinoflagellate.
        - The spawning of Centropyge Resplendens.
        - The spawning of Centropyge Loriculus.
        - Attempts at rearing Centropyge Resplendens protolarvae.
        - Attempts at rearing Centropyge Loriculus protolarvae.

   Although my time is limited, I don't mind doing the research for any of
  the above topics or any others that you might have. I have discovered  
  that performing research can be a very enlightening experience. Hope-
  fully, others will feel the same way. If one lacks the time to be a
  breeder, then doing research at a university library, being a note 
  taking reef observer or passing messages between computer nets should 
  not be to much to ask.  
=========================================================================
  References
=========================================================================
  Corals of the World        Dr. Elizabeth M. Wood       1983

  Dynamic Aquaria - Building Living Ecosystems
                             Walter H. Adey
                             Karen Loveland              1991

  The Manual of Marine Invertebrates
                             Martin Haywood
                             Sue Wells                   1989

  The Marine Aquarium Handbook Beginner to Breeder
         New Edition Revised and Expanded           
                             Martin A. Moe Jr.           1992

  The Marine Aquarium Reference 
         Systems and Invertebrates
                             Martin A. Moe Jr,           1989

  Notes on the Reproduction and Development of Heliopora
            Coerulea (The Blue Coral)                    FAMA Vol 15 #1
                             Robert A. Weingarten Ph.D.  Jan 1992

  The Reef Tanks Owners Manual
                             John H. Tullock             1991

  Advanced Reef Keeping      Albert J. Thiel             1989
=========================================================================
 Call for Open Discussion on "Reef Breeding" Techniques and Practices.
 Author - Steve Tyree.  Computer Support Specialist and Engineer
          and Practicing Reef Breeder.
=========================================================================


(M)Spawning of Elegance coral

by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer)
Date: 30 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

After getting the news on the spawning brain coral I decided
to up my lighting to the levels posted in Steve's post.
Three days later my elegance coral began to spawn. The
event was exactly as described by Steve, all mouths 
erupting a stream of eggs. I captured the eggs with a syringe
and long tube and placed them into a breeder guppy net enclosure.
The eggs were brown and about the size of a pin shaft. The next
morning the eggs hatched either into something microscopic or into
tiny black dots the size of a pinpoint. I'm not sure if these
are dirt in the fabric net or the actual tiny corals. They are
so small that I didn't notice them on the fabric when I added
the eggs. The distribution of them does correlate to where I
placed the eggs in the net, only time will tell if they grow.
Has anyone read anything about what they feed on?

There is one variable to add to upping the lighting to 2  more hours
per lamp (metal halide). When I set the computer to run one
of the lights from 11:30 AM to 7:30 PM I mistakenly typed in
11:30 PM and one of the lights ran all night long for a single 
night until I corrected it. This "moonlight" may have also
encouraged the spawn.

I'll keep you posted on the progress.
I also  have video tape of the latter part of the spawn, but I've
yet to see of it came out clearly since I had to manual focus it
through the glass.

		Scott Schaeffer
		scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com


(M)Spawning of Elegance coral

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 31 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

In article <29902-at-cbmvax.commodore.com> scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) writes:
>Three days later my elegance coral began to spawn. The
>event was exactly as described by Steve, all mouths 
>erupting a stream of eggs. I captured the eggs with a syringe
>and long tube and placed them into a breeder guppy net enclosure.
>The eggs were brown and about the size of a pin shaft. The next
>morning the eggs hatched either into something microscopic or into
>tiny black dots the size of a pinpoint. I'm not sure if these
>are dirt in the fabric net or the actual tiny corals. They are
>so small that I didn't notice them on the fabric when I added
>the eggs. The distribution of them does correlate to where I
>placed the eggs in the net, only time will tell if they grow.
>Has anyone read anything about what they feed on?
>
   Great news and congradulations scott. Brown eggs. That reminds me of
 an event that occurred 5 months ago in my tank. A medium sized giant
 green fuzzy mushroom released a clump of PINK eggs. I quickly recovered
 them and tryed to hatch them. Without a microscope its really hard to
 see what comes out. You can pick up a cheap microscope at "Toys r US"
 in the us and japan. I have been using the 100x setting. 
  You should keep an eye on your tank during spawning hours for the next
 week or so. You might have something else spawn and release eggs. Since
 my tank is restabilizing after raising the KH, I plan on putting it into
 fall and winter mode for a few weeks. Then when the tank is stable, I 
 might add some additional stonys and go into spring and summer modes again.
 That radio shack timer sounds interesting....
  This also is probably a good time to describe the pelagic (free floating)
 egg hatching method I use. You need the following equipment -
             1 gallon or 1/2 gallon goldfish bowl
             air pump, air stone with fine bubbles
             air line, rigid tubing
             saltwater maroxy
    Recover eggs any way you can gently, and put them along with any tank
 water into the goldfish bowl. After collecting all the eggs the bowl can
 be filled to 4/5 's full with sterile salt water or tank water. Attach air
 stone to rigid tubing and line and then the air pump. Run very strong bubbles
 threw air stone and place it in the bowl close to the bottom. You almost
 can not have to strong of an air flow. Eggs need to be constantly moving 
 but not smashing into everything. Any eggs that settle , will not hatch 
 properly. Also add about 1/2 cap of maroxy to water. This helps fish eggs
 hatch and will kill some nasty bacteria that you dont want to transfer to
 rearing tanks. This method works great with fish eggs. Havent tried maroxy
 on coral eggs though. Check my next posting for info on what you might
 be looking for.

>There is one variable to add to upping the lighting to 2  more hours
>per lamp (metal halide). When I set the computer to run one
>of the lights from 11:30 AM to 7:30 PM I mistakenly typed in
>11:30 PM and one of the lights ran all night long for a single 
>night until I corrected it. This "moonlight" may have also
>encouraged the spawn.
>
    Good information to have. We shouldnt be afraid to talk about any 
   uncalculated things we do. I am not going to say that I meant to 
   get my open brain coral to spawn. It was an incredible sequence
   of events that were partially out of my control. Timing was every-
   thing.

  Steve Tyree - Practing Reef Breeder


coral spawning

by tse/ra.nrl.navy.mil (Anthony Tse)
Date: 30 Mar 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

Hello,
  Just had a chat with a guy at the local store.  I told him about the
coral spawning discussion and he told me there is a guy in the
Washington DC area whose hammer head coral spawned.  He didn't try to
hatch the spawn so there were no baby corals.

-Anthony


Reef Breeding Techniques and Practices

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 1 Apr 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria

========================================================================
  Call for Open Discussion on "Reef Breeding" Techniques and Practices.
=========================================================================
  Section 1 of 3
=========================================================================
    Justification for having an open discussion.
=========================================================================
  Breeding reef organisms is a very challenging and difficult task to 
 undertake. Supporting information is hard to locate and most of the
 reef species have never been raised in captivity. Despite this, success  
 is continuing to be made. Scientist, amateur breeders, and commercial
 breeders have spawned and raised into subadult form up to 50 species of 
 marine reef fish. Although a third of these have been marine clownfish,
 breeders are beginning to unravel the more difficult to breed coral
 reef species. With the advent of marine reef tanks, many forms of marine
 invertebrate can now be housed in captivity for their entire natural
 life cycle. Some of the colonial and easy to keep species, are propagat-
 ing quite naturally in these reef tanks. However, all Madreporia Corals
 (stony) and a few Alcyonaria Corals (soft), have been more difficult to
 raise due to their natural reproductive methods. Some success with these
 species has been achieved through vegatative (coral fragment) reproduc-
 tion methods.
  A few amateur breeders are currently trying to naturally breed these 
 difficult species and the research they have performed needs to be made
 available to other breeders and people contemplating breeding. Each of
 these species has many unique hurdles or difficulties which must be 
 overcome for captive breeding to be successful. The science required to
 to solve these breeding problems is not text book science. Breeders need
 to be creative in applying different tactics to each species. When the
 solutions for these problems are found we need to distribute this infor-
 mation as fast as possible. Since captive breeding has in the past saved
 species from extinction, its importance can not be overlooked.
  This article is being written with the intent that it will reach marine
 fish breeders, marine coral breeders or reef enthusiast who have the
 passion and the proper equipment. It might also help others decide to
 devote their time and effort into what can be an immensely rewarding
 endeavor. We need to establish a communication link of some kind be-
 tween breeders. If sending this long article was inappropriate, please
 excuse me. As a reef enthusiast who is trying to become a successful
 breeder, I have seen just how important this information can be. 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Using your Reef System for research.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Long term scientific observation is hard to sustain in a reef environ-
 ment. Scientist are using captive aquaria to observe fish and coral
 species. Reef owners can also make observations and take notes that
 could be very valuable to breeders. These notes could be posted as 
 articles following or in addition to this article. Be very observant
 while watching your reef. Some species of coral or invertebrate could
 be spawning and due to our unfamiliarity with their spawning behavior,
 we may not recognize it. If a species does spawn in your reef aquaria,
 (which can happen a lot in a good running reef), we need to have a de-
 tailed description of the spawn and type of spawning used. This is why
 I have included a section on invertebrate and reef fish propagation.
 Below is a basic list of information a reef breeder like myself would
 like to know when a spawn is being reported.

      - Hardware specifics for the spawning aquarium.
      - Type of lighting used and detailed description of light cycle.
      - Report any trends that were occurring in the light cycle.
      - All the environmental parameters you can test accurately. 
      - Temperature of water. Some thermometers are very inaccurate. 
      - Report any trends that occurred to any parameters.
      - Time of day that spawn occurred at. (reference light cycle to).
      - Detailed description of spawning behavior and techniques.
      - Amount of night lite. This is the same as moon light and phase.
      - Type of food and feeding methods used for this species.
      - Placement of species in relation to light source. 
      - Placement of species in relation to water current. 
      - Special things you did to induce spawning.
      - Unusual events that have occurred recently. 
      - Personal thoughts on what might have caused spawning.
      - A history of this species in your tank might be appropriate.

 This is very important information. Someone might create a generic form
 that could easily be filled out by a reef observer and mailed or even
 posted here. This reef breeding author as well as many others are very 
 serious about breeding and propagating reef species. Those of you who  
 have a living reef in your home, can truly understand the splendor and
 importance a reef has. Your observations could be directly responsible  
 for helping us breeders determine how to propagate these magnificent  
 creatures.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Description for the concept of Reef Breeding.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
  "Reef Breeding" refers to the captive breeding of any organism which 
 inhabits a coral reef. A lot of these organisms can now be maintained   
 and are starting to be propagated in captive aquarium. Below is a list
 of scientific classifications for common reef species.

 Phylum List of Reef Macroalgae
   Phylum Chlorophtya (Caulerpa, Sea Lettuce, Green Algaes)
   Phylum Rhodophyta (Red Encrusting Algaes)
   Phylum Phaeophyta (Sargassum, Brown Algaes) 
 Phylum List of Reef Animals 
   Phylum Coelenterata/Cnidaria (Corals,Sea Anenomes,Sea Fans)
   Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
   Phylum Annelida (Segmented Worms)
   Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
   Phylum Chelicerata (King/Horseshoe Crabs, Sea Spiders, Some Mites)
   Phylum Cordata (Sea Squirts)
   Phylum Chordata SubPhylum Agnatha (Marine Jawless Fish).
                   SubPhylum Gnathostomata (Marine Jawed Fish).
   Phylum Crustacea (Crustaceans)
   Phylum Echinodermata (Starfish, Sea Urchins, Sea Lilies, Feather 
                         Stars, Sea Cucumbers)
   Phylum Mollusca (Molluscs)

 Total number of invertebrate species involved is greater then 75,000.
 My personal invertebrate interest is in Phylum Coelenterata - Class 
 Anthozoa(Sea Anenomes, Corals, Sea Pens) (greater then 6,000 species).
 Basic propagation information for macroalgaes is absent in the sections
 that follow. My reef tank has very little macro algae and thus my exper-
 ience is limited. This article is meant to be a starting point for the 
 discussion of reef breeding. Readers could follow this up with family or
 species based information. The last three phylums in the above list can
 be extremely difficult to raise to subadult form due to their long and
 multileveled plankton or juvenile stages.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Current difficulties of Reef Breeding. 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Breeding reef organisms is a very difficult task which requires long
 term planning and financial investment. You need to study lots of reef
 literature and reef species information. An aquarium must be purchased
 and equipped properly. The reef system should be capable of providing
 low nutrient water, high intensity lighting of the correct spectral
 quality, oxygen levels at or near saturation, control of dissolved
 carbon dioxide organics, proper management of trace elements and active
 water flow. The aquarium must then be installed and brought into a 
 stable condition. It could take 2 months or longer for a complete reef
 system to settle into a low microalgae state. These initial difficult-
 ies support the assumption that most breeders will come from hobbyist
 who already have an aquarium or are very knowledgeable with reef systems.
 A non-reef basic breeding tank could be tried if a specific species is
 targeted, however you should completely know the requirements of the
 species. If you plan on having anenomes, stony and soft corals, macro-
 algae and other delicate species inhabiting your reef, then the species
 of reef fish which can coexist peacefully with these invertebrates gets
 quite small. Alternatively, you could have a live rock based system or
 plain marine tank with no higher order invertebrates and use this as a 
 base to support butterflyfishes, large angelfish, triggers and other 
 coral eating type species. Hopefully, an alternative food can be found
 for them.
  The next task is to acquire breeding pairs of reef species or asexual
 invertebrates. These must be acclimated into your system, studied exten-
 sively and the proper food must be provided. Hopefully the species will
 then begin to spawn or propagate and eggs or young specimens can be co-
 llected from your reef. Then hatching the eggs and or growing the young
 invertebrates must be done. Also, many protolarvae and larvae are plank-
 ton in size and require microplankton sized live food. These foods need
 to be cultured and maintained. Then tanks for the young need to be pro-
 vided. As you can see, their are many hurdles and difficulties which
 must be overcome for captive breeding to be successful. Once techniques
 are learned, we need to distribute this information as fast as possible
 to other breeders. This discussion was started utilizing a basic format
 in which other breeders and potential breeders will hopefully feel com-
 fortable with.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Positive aspects of Reef Breeding.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
  The current living reefs on this planet are not very old in a geological
 sense. Way back in earths past, when all the continents were one and their
 was only one sea (Tethys), massive reefs flourished in all tropical zones.
 Then the continents started pulling apart and individual seas formed. The
 reefs remaining in these oceans all evolved down separate paths.  Coral 
 still flourished in some seas and then the ice age period started. These
 ice ages devastated the ancient reefs by constantly lowering and raising 
 the ocean water levels. This caused reefs to be submerged to deep to re-
 ceive enough light or actually lifted them out of the water. The modern 
 distribution of reefs is patchy at best. Some have described our current 
 oceans as vast deserts with a few reef oasis. It has been estimated that 
 15,000 years ago ocean levels were 120 meters lower then their currently
 are.
  As reef breeders, our primary concern should be for the continuing ex-
 sistance of natural coral reefs in the oceans of this planet. A long term
 goal for reef breeding could be to provide a backup for natures ecosystems
 and provide a source of specimens for the propagations of coral reefs 
 around the world. When breeding marine fish and corals becomes more su-
 ccessful, most wild collection could be replaced with captive breed spec-
 imen distribution. Then all reefs damaged by natural causes, (hurricanes, 
 temperature changes, salinity changes, sedimentation and biological fact-
 ors), and by man made causes, (food harvesting, torphie hunting, building
 materials, destructive fishing methods, dredging, live collecting, sand 
 extraction and choked with silt washed from land), can then be restocked 
 with captive breed organisms in subadult or larvae form. We must also stop
 current pollution from entering the seas for our work to be ultimately 
 successful. This pollution exists in the following forms, (sewage, oil,
 pesticides, industrial wastes and warm water outflows). 
  Due to the hostile nature of the coral reef environment, most species
 release 100's and 1000's of eggs to maintain their current population le-
 vels. If these eggs can be produced in a captive aquarium, we will have
 access to all the specimens we could possibly need. Coral reefs can only
 exist in certain bands of our oceans. Their temperature requirements limit
 them to between 30 degrees north and south latitudes. Also they need very 
 intense sunlight so the base reef must be raised or within a narrow range 
 of depth. Many corals have a limited distribution range due to the way
 they disperse their larvae (ie-they release short lived planktonic forms
 which settle quickly). These corals could be distributed by man via cap-
 tive raised larvae or subadult specimens.
  Breeders should proceed carefully though because we do not want to start
 a breeders craze which could in the short run cause even more demand for
 wild specimens. Hopefully, our success will proceed so rapidly that as 
 restrictions are being placed on wild specimen collection, we can supply
 the marine aquarium hobby with tank raised specimens. One great way to
 to show the potential success of captive breeding might be for the first
 stony coral breeder to donate some specimens to a country with a damaged
 reef. 
  Marine aquarium could also be utilized to provide a home to a species 
 which may have temporarily lost its natural one. Breeders can furnish
 marine aquarists with detailed information on the long term maintenance
 requirements for each organism. Armed with modern equipment and breeders
 knowledge these aquarist could then provide their reef organisms with a 
 home as good as the reef itself. If special care is taken to make sure
 no natural predators are housed together then the environment might ac-
 tually be better for the reef organism.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Future of Reef Breeding. 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
   The next 10 years are going to be extremely exciting times in the reef
  breeding area. With literally thousands of reef species their should be
  plenty of opportunities. Individuals might try breeding their favorite 
  species or try to raise the larvae of whatever coral happens to spawn in
  their main reef tank. I cant wait till the day when a breeder has been
  successful in raising a colony of young Acroporidae or Pocilloporidae.
  How about a tank full of small marine angelfish. This can be occurring
  sooner then you or I think. If anyone reading this has attempted or has
  been successful with any marine species, please let us know about your
  experiences. 
=========================================================================
 Call for Open Discussion on "Reef Breeding" Techniques and Practices.
 Author - Steve Tyree.  Computer Support Specialist and Engineer
          and Practicing Reef Breeder.
=========================================================================


It must be that time of year-Anemone spawning?

by fssmith/venus.lerc.nasa.gov (Greg Smith)
Date: 13 Apr 1992
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <13APR199210082670-at-venus.lerc.nasa.gov>, fssmith-at-venus.lerc.nasa.gov
(Greg Smith) writes... 

Lets try this post again.  It appears the server lost my previous message.

Last nigh a large anemone in my 125 gallon reef tank began releasing a milky
substance into the water.  It released a stream of a white substance which would
dissolve in the water after trickling down the anemone.  It did this about every
10 to fifteen minutes or so.  The spawn began at around 9:30 pm and was still
occuring at 1230 when I quit watching.  The aquarium lights went off at 11:00.
The water was so milky that I could not see the back wall of the tank.  AS far
as I could tell the substance released was not eggs.  I made no effort to 
collect anything.  I did however manage to photograph some of the releases.  I
hope they come out.  This morning the water was clear and the anemone appeared
normal.


It must be that time of year-Anemone spawning?

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 13 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <13APR199211223909-at-venus.lerc.nasa.gov> fssmith-at-venus.lerc.nasa.gov (Greg Smith) writes:
>Last nigh a large anemone in my 125 gallon reef tank began releasing a milky
>substance into the water.  It released a stream of a white substance which would
>dissolve in the water after trickling down the anemone.  It did this about every
   I am not an expert on coral/anenome spawning, but its possible that your
  anenome is male. Some species are only one sex and require a member of the
  opposite sex for a completed spawning. So does anyone have a female anenome
  for Gregs male ?

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


It must be that time of year-Anemone spawning?

by glee/athena.mit.edu (Gilbert Huppert)
Date: Mon, 13 Apr 1992
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

Steve Tyreewrites:
>   I am not an expert on coral/anenome spawning, but its possible that your
>  anenome is male. Some species are only one sex and require a member of the
>  opposite sex for a completed spawning. So does anyone have a female anenome
>  for Gregs male ?
>
> Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder

Of course we would need to know what species the anemone was.  I used to have
an atlantic anemone (condylactis?) which released what were clearly eggs about
6 weeks ago.  Unfortunately, this anemone refused to stay put even when I fed
it twice a week.  It eventually moved on top of a power-head, and although mostly
undamaged, I got rid of it (since it was not wedged between rocks for the first
time in 6 months).  It may be that my anemone needed a mate, it may just be
that the fish ate the eggs, or the spawn may all have ended up in the filter, 
but I have seen no evidence of progeny.



--
Gilbert Lee Huppert (glee-at-athena.mit.edu)
Materials Etching Technology Laboratory


[M] Hard coral spawning continued...

by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer)
Date: 13 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

This weekend a second hard coral spawned. It is
a branched pink hammer coral Euphillia ???. This spawn
was different from the Elegance spawn in that the sperm
and eggs seemed to be released from different sources.
The sperm was a clear liquid which seemed to be produced
by the coral surface and the eggs were released as a
mass from the mouths. There were less eggs than the 
Elegance (maybe 100 or so). The interesting part about this
spawn was that the coral has been in captivity about 9
months as opposed to the Elegance which was in captivity
about 2 months. Jamie Olivier recently stated that thier
research showed corals would spawn only within a month
or so of captivity and older corals failed to spawn due
to less than optimal conditions. This spawn gives some
hope of spawning captive corals year after year. The
eggs and sperm were captured via a syringe and long
plastic tube and inserted into a sterile test tube.
The cap was replaced by fine gausse held by rubber
band and a piece of "weed wacker line" used to
suspend the tube underwater in front of the wave
making powerhead. The wavemaker was reprogrammed
to 15 sec on and 5 sec off. When on a random motion
was produced similar to the wave motion described
in Jamie's previous article.(again many thanks for your
help Jamie). Within 12hrs clear disks were visible
on the inside of the tube. I'll keep updating the
progress of the disks.

		Scott Schaeffer
		scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com


[M] Hard coral spawning continued...

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 13 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <30269-at-cbmvax.commodore.com> scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) writes:
>This weekend a second hard coral spawned. It is
>a branched pink hammer coral Euphillia ???. This spawn
   More great news from Scott. Keep up the good work. If you can find the time
   could you post details on light cylces, moonlight and any other tricks you
   have performed. My tank is entering winter mode now and recovering from my
   KH fiasco. I read in a australian tourist book on the Great Barrier Reef 
   that the corals there spawned on the first waning moon in summer time. 
   Did you have a low light nite after you left a halide on all night during
   your first reported spawning ? Could that have been a waning moon ?
>was different from the Elegance spawn in that the sperm
>and eggs seemed to be released from different sources.
>The sperm was a clear liquid which seemed to be produced
>by the coral surface and the eggs were released as a
>mass from the mouths. There were less eggs than the 
>Elegance (maybe 100 or so). The interesting part about this
>spawn was that the coral has been in captivity about 9
>months as opposed to the Elegance which was in captivity
>about 2 months. Jamie Olivier recently stated that thier
>research showed corals would spawn only within a month
>or so of captivity and older corals failed to spawn due
>to less than optimal conditions. This spawn gives some
   Modern day reef systems may be approaching more optimal conditioning.
   What are your nitrate and phosphate levels ? Do you have low range test
   kits ?
>hope of spawning captive corals year after year. The
   Its possible that we could get corals to spawn more then once a year in
   captivity. Like 2,3 or 4 times a year. By adjusting your light cylce times
   a year could be months. The main question is how long does it take a coral
   to produce viable eggs and or sperm. They may be able to do it in a shorter
   time frame then in nature. I could never understand how natural corals can
   spawn only once a year on the same day and still propagate on this planet. 
   What if local water conditions are bad on the one spawning day. All the eggs 
   for the entire year could be lost. This seems like a very primitive form of
   reproduction.
>eggs and sperm were captured via a syringe and long
>plastic tube and inserted into a sterile test tube.
>The cap was replaced by fine gausse held by rubber
>band and a piece of "weed wacker line" used to
>suspend the tube underwater in front of the wave
>making powerhead. The wavemaker was reprogrammed
>to 15 sec on and 5 sec off. When on a random motion
>was produced similar to the wave motion described
>in Jamie's previous article.(again many thanks for your
>help Jamie). Within 12hrs clear disks were visible
>on the inside of the tube. I'll keep updating the
>progress of the disks.
>
    Please do scott. My protozoan blooms which turned into brown/blackish
  disks then turned clear or transparent. They are extremely hard to locate
  after that. I have installed a reef breeding tray farming system which was
  made completely operational this weekend. 3 Trays were seeded with the brown
  disks. 1 Tray has some loose mushroom corals I have taken out of the main
  tank. The other 2 trays will be loaded soon. One way to locate white objects
  easy is to turn off the main light, then use a flashlight held at the proper
  angle. I have little very white growths now on the bottom of the trays. This
  is not algae or diatom. Light can not be shined threw it. I have to use re-
  flected light in the microscope. They appear like white cauliflower but are
  much more detailed. No septa yet. Still dont know if these came from disks 
  or are something else. I havent given up hope. The one possibility for me
  is that the open brain coral released eggs which developed into planulae
  which happen to be very slow developing planulae. Any way this is a good 
  test run for my new tray farming system.

  Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


[M] Hard coral spawning continued...

by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer)
Date: 16 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <1476-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:
>In article <30269-at-cbmvax.commodore.com> scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) writes:
>>This weekend a second hard coral spawned. It is
>>a branched pink hammer coral Euphillia ???. This spawn
>   More great news from Scott. Keep up the good work. If you can find the time
>   could you post details on light cylces, moonlight and any other tricks you
>   have performed. My tank is entering winter mode now and recovering from my
>   KH fiasco. I read in a australian tourist book on the Great Barrier Reef 
>   that the corals there spawned on the first waning moon in summer time. 
>   Did you have a low light nite after you left a halide on all night during
>   your first reported spawning ? Could that have been a waning moon ?
The spawning was induced by a single 175w halide on for a single night.
The water temperature started to edge up when the lighting was on
all night so I stopped it until I can build a actinic moonlight setup
or I get a chiller.
>   Modern day reef systems may be approaching more optimal conditioning.
>   What are your nitrate and phosphate levels ? Do you have low range test
>   kits ?
Nitrate at 2.4 ppm (Dupla test). Phosphate <.1mmp (precision aquarium)
Neither are low range. When either creep up I can see the macroalgae
go from no growth at all to slow growth. I prefer biological feedback
as to exhaustive testing, I test every 2mo or so to verify the levels
and its worked well for me. I have minute by minute computer logs
of temp ph redox and conductivity the day of the spawn. I can mail it
to anyone interested but its too large to post.
I use kalkwasser dosing and to adjust ro topoff water, KSM, liquid gold
and homemade iodine. Also reef crystals. Ph ~7.9-8.00 redox 300-375
conductivity 51500us to 53000us temp 76-78. CO2 (which rarely kicks in)
and 4 175w halides, venturi skimmer ,ozone, x-nitrate, xphosphate,
coconut carbon.

Just a tip for those with wondering anemonies. I have a blue carpet
anemonie which refused to stay in one spot even though I provided
a hole in the live rock for his foot (I guess the live rock was too
jagged). I sunk a glass into the crevace and inserted the anemonie
foot. He has stayed there for 3 months now and is very happy. 

		Scott Schaeffer
		scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com


[M] Hard coral spawning continued...

by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer)
Date: 16 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <1481-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:
>In article <30269-at-cbmvax.commodore.com> scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer) writes:
>>This weekend a second hard coral spawned. It is
>>a branched pink hammer coral Euphillia ???. This spawn
> - stuff deleted -
>>help Jamie). Within 12hrs clear disks were visible
>>on the inside of the tube. I'll keep updating the
>>progress of the disks.
>>
>  Scott, could you describe these disks for us. Im still searching the many 
> containers I have for possible juvenile open brain corals (spat). Maybe guess
> at its size based on a adult rotifer. Do you see any budding happening near 
> the disks ? ie- New smaller disks forming near original. Or are the disk grow-
> ing by splitting within ? Do you see a dot in the center ? Are the disks turn-
> ing white ?
>   Thanks,
>           Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder

The disks are the size of a pin head and I don't have an apropriate
magnifier to see any detail. There were some sort of juvinile corals on
my florida live rock. They grew from 1/8" disks to 1/4" disks and septa
became visible around the 1/8" size. The coral itself has clear
tentacles with tiny white spots. I still have a few in the tank but they
don't seem to be growing any further. I don't know if you can assume
that any size coral must grow to this size before septa appear. We'll
know in a few months.

		Scott Schaeffer
		scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com


[M] Reef Breeding Update

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 19 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria


 Just an update concerning previous information posted.
 - Section 2 of "Call for Open Discussion of Reef Breeding Techniques and
   Practices" has been put on hold for awhile. This was intended to be a
   glossary of reef breeding terminology and species breeding techniques.
 - I am conducting research at a local Academic library located on a college
   campus you may have heard of. UCLA. I happen to drive past it every day
   on the way to work. Jamie Oliver from Australias Great Barrier Reef was
   kind enough to list several reef breeding tropical references. These 
   journals were loacated primarily in UCLA's BioMed library. One journal
   article is very informative and I highly recommend it. 
    Marine Biology 90:379-394 (1986)
    "Synchronus spawnings of 105 scleractinian coral species on the Great
     Barrier Reef"
     R.C. Babcock, G.D. Bull, P.L. Harrison, A.J. Heyward, J.K. Oliver,
     C.C. Wallace and B.L. Willis
   If anyone is interesting I could try typing in some of the excellent
   information found within this journal article. I still have not found
   pictures of developing planulae or spat that I could relate to. The few
   I did find were more or less disected or not very helpful to me. Will
   do some more research sunday night.

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


[M] Reef Breeding Update

by PLai/cup.portal.com (Patrick L Faith)
Date: Sun, 19 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria

   >information found within this journal article. I still have not found
   >pictures of developing planulae or spat that I could relate to. The few
There is some really nice footage of a developing coral that was
done for a Nova show, i think called "coral" something.  Any way
it shows a new coral egg, somedevelopmental steps, and about 3
hours of speed up photography of what the coral egg looks like
after it attached itself to a rock.   From everything I've read
the reason for the mass release of eggs is so that the eggs will
be released on a outgoing tide - which is most easilty determined
by inverts through the full moon or no moon phase.  if the eggs
are released at a low tide then there is a high percentage chance
that the eggs will be killed/filtered through the reef inhabitants.
Any way, the fact that the eggs are released durring a full moon
cycle says to me that they need to develop for a few weeks before they
are ready to attach to rocks and navigate through predators.   The
show also mentioned that most reef eggs like to bump against different
rock surfaces before they pick one they like - perhaps a fresh rock
surface with no algea ?

                           PLai (patrick lee faith)


[M] Reef Breeding Update

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 20 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria

In article <57641-at-cup.portal.com> PLai-at-cup.portal.com (Patrick L Faith) writes:
>
>There is some really nice footage of a developing coral that was
>done for a Nova show, i think called "coral" something.  Any way

  Sounds great. Will have to search fo it.

>be released on a outgoing tide - which is most easilty determined
>by inverts through the full moon or no moon phase.  if the eggs
>are released at a low tide then there is a high percentage chance
>that the eggs will be killed/filtered through the reef inhabitants.
 
 I have been doing extensive research on this at an academic library.
Corals were found to spawn during some low tides on the great barrier
reef. They may have liked to spawn during lower current phases to. The 
main thing leading up to the spawn in Australia is rising temperature, 
increasing daylight cycles and then a Full Moon. They spawn 3-7 days
after a Full moon during a couple of months in late spring early
summer. They have found no correlation with tides yet. I havent read
all the journal articles yet but am continuing to research..

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


[M] Reef Breeding Update

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 21 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 While researching scientific journals and researching my own reef tank I have
made another discovery that might prove interesting. First some background in-
formation.
  Corals release new eggs and planulae in the following methods.
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 - Release of individual eggs. (Female).
  2 - Release of sperm. (Male).
  3 - Release of both sperm and individual eggs. (Asexual).
  4 - Release of a sphere which contains small individual eggs and packets
      of sperm. (Asexual).
  5 - Release of a developed planulae. (Asexual).
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
In reference to number 5 from above. Some corals fertilize eggs within
individual polyps and then wait for a planulae to develope before re-
leasing them. Certain corals release a few planulae every night for short
periods of time or very long periods extending over many months. Last
night a Cup Coral (Chalice ?) I have released a string of white mucus
material after the actinics turned off. I then examined this material
under the scope and found many planulae like forms. It was late at night
so I didnt spend much time on this. I beleive that the scientific name
might be Tubastrea ?. This is the bluish/greenish version which loves
intense metal halide light. Anyway, the main point Id like to make is that
any coral which releases mucus like material after the main lights go
off could be releasing planulae. Does Tubastrea devolpe planulae within?
Also, I have not cleaned the inside glass of my reef for about 1 month.
I put in about 2,000 of the protozoans which I thought at the time were
planulae and still might be. These have gathered on the glass and I dont
want to disturb them. Using an 8 times magnification hand lense I have
noticed planulae like forms on the glass kind of stuck in the diatom 
grow I have on the glass. These are mm's in length. I will investigate
this some more and possible move some to the reef breeding tray farming
system I have.
 PS- Turbo snails have kept the glass somewhat transparent.

  Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder 


[M] Identification of juvenile Trachophyllia Geoffroyi ?

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 27 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria


 This is an update on what is in the containers in which developing Open
Brain Coral eggs were put in. Its been very difficult determining what
is or isnt coral planulae or coral spat. After researching Scientific
Journals and spending hours examining organisms under a 100x microscope,
I will now describe what I consider to be the current best possibility
for developing juvenile coral "spat". This organism was described in a
previous posting. Heres the old description.

 Organism #1 - Thousands in one container and a few in another. Semitrans-
               parent disk with some detail and a spot in circle. I dont 
               think that this is spat. Their are to many and they appear to
               be developing from very small disks, like about 10 microns.
               Current size is 10 - 200 microns. They also have a very long
               thread sticking out from the center.

 Here is new updated information. Why I didnt spend much time with them
previously was that the numbers were to high. It may be possible that the
original spats or polyps have been budding new spats or polyps near by.
In some coral books they mention that certain juvenile corals bud new 
polyps next to them as they grow. Is it possible that Trachophyllia
geoffroyi does this ? I also thought they might be eggs of some crustacean
like creature crawling on container glass. They are still there and are
growing slowly. Near by buds are fusing together. They are not eggs for
the crustacean. Some individuals are over 300 microns in diameter. When
they get this big they have usually fused together with nearby buds.
 I wasnt initially setup to handle coral eggs so the container they are in 
is a very crude 1 gallon glass jug. The spat was covering the inside of jug
glass. Seem to be concentrated on the side that would allow the natural
top surface to be facing the strip lighting. They have been growing very
slowly no doubt due to the environment they are in. This weekend I decided
to smash the glass jug and put the glass pieces in my reef tray farming
system. This has worked very well and the (spats) are growing much faster
now. This has also allowed me to view them much better. Under a microscope
they appear as transparent circles with a dot in the center. No septa are
visible with this refracted lighting. When using reflected lighting they
appear whitish and very much like a spat should. The only thing lacking
is visible septa. Hopefully, these will develope much faster in a decent
environment. They do appear to have long thread like strings extending
from them. These do not appear as tentacles and look like they might be
some type of algae growing on or near the spat.
 Does this sound like spat to anyone ?
 I will provide a more accurate description later in the week.

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder


[M][R] My open brain coral spawned

by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers)
Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1992
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria,alt.aquaria

My open brain coral, Trachyphyllia geoffroyi, spawned last night.  It
was quite interesting.  The stuff was brownish-red, stringy and
mucousy looking.  It was being squirted with great force out of
several of the "mouths."  I first noticed it around 30 minutes before
MH lights out which is followed by 20 more minutes of "dusk" supplied
by a 40W incandescent bulb on a dimmable timer.  I have it quite
dimmed equalling perhaps 15W.

The geysers repeated about 5 minutes apart at least 7 times, two of
which occured after the main lights went out.  I don't know if I
caught the first occurance of if I saw the last one as I had to leave
before the dusk lights went off.

The first thing I noticed was a bunch of brown stringy goo and figured
the coral just had the runs as it was voiding itself.  But then I
noticed my midas blenny (Escenius midas) going ape-wild bonkers eating
it.  Given how easily the fish can discriminate between good food and
animal poop I figured the goo might be eggs.  This morning I brought
some in to look at under the company microscope.

They're eggs all right.  They come in clumps of "jelly" and are really
small.  Internal fiddly-bits (that's a real biology term :^) are
easily discernable at 650x while playing around with the light.  The
most noticable thing is a large sphere in each one.  I don't know if
it's the nucleus or an oil droplet but I'd guess oil based on the
color and transleuscency.  Some of them look like they've divided but
that's hard to tell; maybe those are just instances of two eggs
especially tightly bound together because I don't know if the eggs are
already fertilized allowing for division.  Is this coral
hermaphroditic?

I'm not set up to care for the eggs even if they are viable but it was
a plesant surprise at any rate.

Here are a few environmental clues which may or may not have any
bearing on the coral's spawning: last week I left my dusk light on all
night two nights in a row at its lowest intensity.  I did this on a
whim to simulate a full moon.  I wasn't expecting anything so I don't
even remember which nights I did it on :-(.  The last three days in a
row have been the consecutively hottest ones of the year so far so the
average temperature in the tank was up perhaps 1 degree F (to 76
instead of 75.)  The MH lights are on for 10hrs 15min every day at the
same time every day.  I feed the coral a piece of coctail shrimp every
3-4 months.  The base of the coral is 20" below water and the MH
lights are ~12" above the surface.  The coral is in the front of the
tank where it doesn't get especially a lot of light compared to other
places.  The coral makes a 6" diameter hemisphere when fully expanded.

On a side note, the blenny was so stuffed after its unusually yummy
meal that it couldn't fit back in its hidie-hole - had to find a new
one.  But it sure was *happy*.
-- 
Keith Rogers
Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp.
krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com


[M][R] My open brain coral spawned

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 30 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria,alt.aquaria

In article <1992Apr29.203703.8645-at-javelin.sim.es.com> krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com writes:
>My open brain coral, Trachyphyllia geoffroyi, spawned last night.  It
>
  Could you make a rough estimate of the total number of eggs released ?
>
>They're eggs all right.  They come in clumps of "jelly" and are really
>hermaphroditic?

 I have found no scientific references on this coral yet. If its like
other moon corals then its probably hermaphroditic. Mine actually released
clouds of sperm along with the eggs. At least it looked that way.

>
>bearing on the coral's spawning: last week I left my dusk light on all
>night two nights in a row at its lowest intensity.  I did this on a
>whim to simulate a full moon.  I wasn't expecting anything so I don't
>even remember which nights I did it on :-(.  The last three days in a
>row have been the consecutively hottest ones of the year so far so the
>average temperature in the tank was up perhaps 1 degree F (to 76
>instead of 75.)  The MH lights are on for 10hrs 15min every day at the
>same time every day.  I feed the coral a piece of coctail shrimp every
 
   10 hour metal halide lengths. Maybe the full moon is the most impor-
 tant factor, followed by temperature and then light diel. A few questions.

    How long have you had this coral ?
    What color is it? ie - Is it red trimmed or all green ?
    How many mouths or polyps would you say it has ?
    The main way scientists relate coral spawning is how many days
     before or after the Full or New moon. So can you guess ?
>
>one.  But it sure was *happy*.
>-- 
   Just imagine how many eggs you would have if your entire reef spawned
  on the same night !!!

  On a side note. What if us Reef Breeders did become successful and could
 setup large reefs which were put into 6 month or 1 year rhythms. We could
 predict the exact nights that mass spawning would occur and then advertise
 this date. This could be done with a large public aquaria or maybe one of
 the animal attractions in various locals (Vegas, etc.). I wonder how many
 people would go out of their way to see a mass coral reef spawning ?
 Has this been done anywhere in the world ?

 Steve Tyree - Practicing Reef Breeder

 ps - If this was done, youd find me with a plankton egg net standing near 
      the surface of the tank.  :>


[M][R] My open brain coral spawned

by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers)
Date: 30 Apr 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria,alt.aquaria

steve-at-celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) writes:


>>My open brain coral, Trachyphyllia geoffroyi, spawned last night.  It
>>
>  Could you make a rough estimate of the total number of eggs released ?

Oh right, trying to turn this into some kind of scientific
investigation?  I'm only in this hobby so I can pillage the reefs,
cause several major species to go extinct and bouy the flagging US
economy plus that of several other oceanic thrid world peasants.
Sheez.

Ok, after the sarcastic remark --
I don't think I could even guestimate with the correct order of
magnitude.  I only had this teeny piece of string in which there may
have been some 400 eggs +/- 400 :-)  If you're really gonna press me
for an order of magnitude I'd say hundreds of thousands.  They were
really dinky.  I had to use 650x to see any detail; even 250 only
showed them as eggs, no structure to them, just round spheres.

>   10 hour metal halide lengths. Maybe the full moon is the most impor-
> tant factor, followed by temperature and then light diel.

I agree I was surprised that only 10 hours of light could get them to
spawn regardless of what else is required.

> A few questions.
>
>    How long have you had this coral ?

Looked in my notebook: I bought it 30 Oct, 1990, so 1 1/2 years to the day.

>    What color is it? ie - Is it red trimmed or all green ?

It's mostly flesh colored with several prominant fluroescent green
patches.

>    How many mouths or polyps would you say it has ?

It's a one poly critter.  Seven fully developed mouths with two in the
works due to growth.

>    The main way scientists relate coral spawning is how many days
>     before or after the Full or New moon. So can you guess ?

It was either 5 or 6.
-- 
Keith Rogers
Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp.
krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com


[M] Coral spawn, followup info

by scotts/cbmvax.commodore.com (Scott Schaeffer)
Date: 4 May 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

This is a continuing update on the spawn of my
elegance coral. As per Jamie Oliver's post I had
placed some eggs in a test tube with gauss covering
and suspended it in the tank. The eggs had seemed to
attach to the sides as white colored disks. The disks
later seem to have disintegrated after a few weeks.
I assumed that some tank condition wasn't optimal for
growth. Just this weekend I was moving a piece of live rock 
and stirred up the detrius on the tank bottom. When the
dirt settled the tank was filled with pinhead sized
white spheres. I captured some and put them under
the microscope. They were solid and the light was
unable to penetrate to the inside. I decided it was
some sort of calcium particle but decided to try to
open one. Upon opening it with a razor fluid was
released and the shell started to break down. The
shell was very tough, more leathery than brittle.
Upon analysis of the fluid cell masses were visible.
This leads me to conclude this is some sort of egg
but I'm not sure if it is really the elegance coral.
I placed some eggs back in the test tube and by the
next day they had dissolved. I assume these eggs require
continuous water flow by them. Hundreds of these eggs
are visible in the detrius now that I know what to
look for. I'll leave them there and continue to update
on their growth. If you read this Jamie, what is
your opinion on the possibility that they are the
juvinile coral?

	Scott Schaeffer
	scotts-at-cbmvax.commodore.com


reef breeding article

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 9 May 92
Newsgroup: sci.aquaria,rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria


 I have researched one article that deals with coral planulae settling
and metamorphisis. This is a direct extract from the scientific article. 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Scientific Journal - Coral Reefs
           Article - Mortality and growth of juvenile coral Pocillopora
                     damicornis (Linnaeus)
             Issue - 4:27-33  1985
            Author - Mayumi Sato
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Article abstract -
 Early mortality in cohorts of the coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linn-
aeus) was monitored under experimental conditions on a reef in order to
evaluate effects of sedimentation, grazing, predation and competition.
Corals that settled in dishes in the laboratory were placed on the reef
flat about 3 days after metamorphisis. Six different conditions were
tested in each series of experiments: orientation of dishes (upward, 
vertical and downward) by with and without protection against potential 
grazers by covering the dish with a net. Survival of juvenile corals on
both protected and unprotected dishes facing upward was lower then in the 
vertical or downward direction. Under the vertical facing and protected
conditions, algal growth was more intensive and algae trapped sediment;
mortality of juvenile corals by algae and sedimentation inceased grad-
ually. In the unprotected and vertical conditions, algal growth on the
surface was removed constantly by grazing invertebrates and fishes and
the juvenile corals were removed or killed as well. On the downward fac-
ing dishes, survivorship of juveniles was relativily high in both pro-  
tected and unprotected conditions. This habitat attracted many sessile
animals that killed some juveniles by competition. Thus, juvenile corals
survived better in experimentally manipulated microhabitats not affected
by direct sedimentation, not exposed to direct grazing activity, and not
occupied by rapidly growing filamentous algae.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 The article then goes on with technical details justifying the above
abstract. All experiments were carried out at Sesoko Marine Science
Center (S.M.S.C.) of the University of the Ryukyus, Sesko Island,
Okinawa. They do not mention coralline algae. The settling media
was unnatural. 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder 


reef breeding article

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 12 May 92
Newsgroup: sci.aquaria,rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria


 This is an exact extract from an scientific journal article dealing
with coral planulae settlement behavior. This may elighten someone who
is trying to develope coral eggs into juvenile coral (spat). The article
may be a little old but still has some interesting information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Scientific Journal - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
           Article - The Settlement Behavior of Planulae Larvae of the
                     Hermatypic Coral Favia fragum (Exper).
             Issue - 15:165-172  1974
            Author - John B. Lewis
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Article abstract -
 Experiments on the settlement behavior of planulae larvae of the reef 
coral Favia fragum (Esper) are described. The larvae are positively
phototaxic upon release but reverse this and become attracted to dark
surfaces, corners, crevices and the undersides of objects on the bot-
tom. Clean glass surfaces were preferred to surfaces covered with bio-
logical slime but there was no preference for rough against smooth sur-
faces. There was clear evidence of gregarious settlement behavior, the
planulae being able to recognize both adult colonies and previously
settled juveniles. A distinction was made between crawling and swimming
larvae, and the consequences of their differences in behaviour on the
spatial distribution of Favia on reef are discussed. Settlement be-
havior of Favia is similar in many respects to that of the Pacific reef
coral Pocillopora damicornis (Dana) but is distinguished by gregarious
settlement and by a preference for clean surfaces over surfaces covered
with biological slime.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 The article then goes on with technical details justifying the above
abstract. Included in the article are various tables with statistics 
recorded during the experiments they ran. I will try to type in some of
these tables. They do not mention coralline algae.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Table I
        Percentage of planulae settling in dark half of bowl = 70 %

        Percentage of planulae settling in light half of bowl = 30 %
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Table II
        Number of planulae settling in 24 hour darkness = 112
        Number of planulae not settling in 24 hour darkness = 59

        # of planulae settling in 12 hour darkness/12 lightness = 83
        # of planulae not settling in 12 hour darkness/12 lightness= 82
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Table III
        This table lists type of surfaces larvae settled on.
      Substratum                Settled         Unsettled
    --------------------        -------          -------
     Black surface                48               30
     White surface                33               72
     Smooth surface               22               60
     Rough surface                23               60
     Sand surface                 22               96
     Plain glass surface          13               40
     Conditioned surface          38               67
     Clean surface                73               34
     Glass fragments              59               19
     No glass fragments           36               26
     Coral fragments           111(48)*a           7
     No coral fragments           49               51
     With glass beakers           30               68
     Without glass beakers        13               65
    -----------------------     -------          -------
    a - value in parentheses are for larvae settled on undersurface of
        coral fragments.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Table III
        Effects of various animals upon settlement of larvae of Favia.

   In presence of                      Settled           Not settled
  ---------------------------          -------             -------
   Two-day old juveniles                 78                  24
   No juveniles                          28                  31
   Adult colony                          60                  11
   No adult colony                       50                  27
   Colonies of Madracis mirabilis        55                  37
   No colonies of Madracis mirabilis     64                  38
   Colonies of Montastrea cavernosa      38                  37
   No colonies of Montastrea cavernosa   49                  50 
    
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder 


[M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 8 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 In a previous post I mentioned that a coral had released a sphere of pink
colored eggs before in my 180 gallon reef tank. It happened again late sunday
nite. I was walking by the tank and saw the large 8-10 mm sphere floating at
the surface. This was after the release, so I cant confirm which coral released
the sphere. Its looks exactly like the one that a green/metallic fuzzy large
mushroom type coral released 6 months ago. The mushroom has short white growths
covering its surface. Its diameter is 4 inches. Note - My tank has been cycling
threw a moon cycle a 2 times speed. This occured right on the NEW moon.
 I proceded to put the sphere into a goldfish bowl. It started to break up a 
little and the individual eggs? broke apart. I looked at one under the micro-
scope and verified that they were not eggs, they are planulae. About 500 of 
them and they have a .6 mm diameter. I then prepared a tray in my reef tray
breeding system and with the tray circulation turned off, the planulae were
installed into the tray. They seemed to float close to the brite lites. They
assume a some what spherical shape but when put on a glass pane for scope
viewing, one side flattens out as if the planulae is settling.
 The planulae are a bright pink. When the tray lights were turned off the 
planulae seemed to swim around and move towards the bottom. This morning I
took a quick look at the tank and I have 1 confirmed planulae settling on
the side of the tray. Hopefully more will follow. This type of larvae re-
lease is called planulae brooding. The eggs are fertilized inside the coral
and released when the planulae is developed. The many trips I have made to 
UCLA's biomed library may have been helpful. I have actual pictures of plan-
ulae now and know what to look for.
 ps- Saturday nite I collected about 400 pelagic flame angelfish eggs from
     1 spawn. Over 300 of them developed into protolarvae. Thats over 800
     coral and reef fish pelagic larvae in one weekend. The potential for
     egg collection from one large reef aquaria is enormous.

  Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder.


[M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 9 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 Update on soft coral planulae. Last night only 57 planulae were still 
floating on the surface. This means 443 or 88.6 percent settled. When
they settle the color changes from pink to dark brown or tan. This makes
them very hard to spot, but a few have been located and I am watching
these develop. They seem to be extending vertically a little. Now they
have to metamorphosis into juvenile corals.
 The 57 unsettled planulae were transfered into a second tray which had
its overflow circulation stoped. The circulation for the tray which has 
the settled planulae was turned on again. The one planulae which had 
settled on the side of the tray has moved elsewhere. All the others have
settled on the bottom of the plastic tray. This may be due to the fact that
I sanded the bottom of the tray before using it and the sides of the tray
are very smooth. The tray also has various algae growths on the bottom,
but most areas were vacummed clean by me prior to installing planulae.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 10 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 Second update on soft coral planulae. While searching with a flashlight
in the dark, I have located most of the settled planulae. They are hard to
find. Some have settled on the lower sides of the plastic tray. Will try 
to monitor the growth in a macro sense. Dont have a underwater extended
microscope. The 57 unsettled planulae which were transefered to a second
tray, have all settled. Also, I installed 47 new GREEN planulae or eggs.
Last night while the pelagic bypass was on, a smaller clump of eggs or
planulae appeared on the surface. These were green colored. I could not
tell if they were eggs or planulae, so I installed them in tray 2.
 I dont know which coral released this small clump of eggs?. It could
have been the smaller fuzzy green mushrooms I have. They basically held
a spherical shape and did not seem to be changing body shape. Will check
for planulae settling tonite.
 So, what to make of this ? Some soft corals release eggs or planulae on
monthly rhythmic pattern during the entire year or partial year. Its
possible that the artificial moonlight that I am providing has caused
these soft corals to get in sync with the monthly moon phases. Now I 
need to document the days when planulae or eggs are released and I might
be able to predict what night in each month these larvae will be re-
leased.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M] Coral Planulae Larvae Release in Marine Reef Aquaria

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 15 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 Here is a diagram showing my current reef year. Listed are the first 
three months leading up to a predicted mass coral spawning. This was 
posted due to interest expressed by netters. The winter half of
the year is still being drafted. It might be 3 months or 2 months long.
This reef year establishes a 2x speed natural yearly rhythm. This means
that 2 natural months are equivalent to 1 reef month. A 30 day moon phase
is actually 15 days. I am hoping that the 3 months leading up to spawning
will induce full development of coral eggs and coral planulae.

=======================================================================
 Glossary of Terms

    Day - Reef day of reef year.
    RDay - Real time day number of month.
    Temp - Average temperature of reef tank in degrees F.
    Sun - Diel times. Number of hours each staggered metal halide is on.
    Moon - Phase definition of moon.
    MonI - Normalized linear intensity value for moon light.
    Note - Special occurances.
    First Q - First moon quarter.
    Last Q - Last moon quarter.
    Spawn - Mass coral spawning prediction.
    PinkPL - Sphere of 500 pink planulae found floating on surface.
             Believe this came from medium sized green metallic fuzzy
             mushroom coral.
    GreenPL - Green eggs or planulae found floating on surface. Total
              was 47 in bundle. Dont know source.
    BrownPL - Brown thimble shaped planulae found floating on surface.
              100 total lite brown planulae recovered. Dont know source.

=======================================================================
= Month = 1  = Reef Year = 1   = Real Month = May    = Real Year = 92 =
=======================================================================
= Type | Sunday | Monday |Teusday |Wensday |Thursday| Friday |Saturday=
================|========|========|========|========|========|=========
= Day  |        |        |        |        | 0      | 1      | 2      =
= RDay |        |        |        |        | 0      | 1      | 2      =
= Temp | 75 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 9 Hour |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        |        |        | FULL   |        |        =
= MonI |        |        |        |        | 1.0    | 0.74   | 0.54   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        | Start  |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 3      | 4      | 5      | 6      | 7      | 8      | 9      =
= RDay | 3      | 4      | 5      | 6      | 7      | 8      | 9      =
= Temp | 75 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 9 Hour |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        | Last Q |        |        | NEW    |        |        =
= MonI | 0.36   | 0.22   | 0.11   | 0.04   | 0.004  | 0.004  | 0.04   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 10     | 11     | 12     | 13     | 14     | 15     | 16     =
= RDay | 10     | 11     | 12     | 13     | 14     | 15     | 16     =
= Temp | 75.5 F |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 9 Hour |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        | First Q|        |        |        | FULL   |        =
= MonI | 0.11   | 0.22   | 0.36   | 0.54   | 0.74   | 1.0    | 0.74   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 17     | 18     | 19     | 20     | 21     | 22     | 23     =
= RDay | 17     | 18     | 19     | 20     | 21     | 22     | 23     =
= Temp | 76 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 9 Hour |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        | First Q|        |        | NEW    |        =
= MonI | 0.54   | 0.36   | 0.22   | 0.11   | 0.04   | 0.004  | 0.004  =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 24     | 25     | 26     | 27     | 28     | 29     | 30     =
= RDay | 24     | 25     | 26     | 27     | 28     | 29     | 30     =
= Temp | 76.5 F |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 10 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        | First Q|        |        |        | FULL   =
= MonI | 0.04   | 0.11   | 0.22   | 0.36   | 0.54   | 0.74   | 1.0    =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 31     |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= RDay | 31     |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Temp | 77 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 10 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= MonI | 0.74   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Month = 2  = Reef Year = 1   = Real Month = June   = Real Year = 92 =
=======================================================================
= Type | Sunday | Monday |Teusday |Wensday |Thursday| Friday |Saturday=
================|========|========|========|========|========|=========
= Day  |        | 32     | 33     | 34     | 35     | 36     | 37     =
= RDay |        | 1      | 2      | 3      | 4      | 5      | 6      =
= Temp | 77 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 10 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        |        | Last Q |        |        | NEW    =
= MonI |        | 0.54   | 0.36   | 0.22   | 0.11   | 0.04   | 0.004  =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 38     | 39     | 40     | 41     | 42     | 43     | 44     =
= RDay | 7      | 8      | 9      | 10     | 11     | 12     | 13     =
= Temp | 77.5 F |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 10 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        |        | First Q|        |        |        =
= MonI | 0.004  | 0.04   | 0.11   | 0.22   | 0.36   | 0.54   | 0.74   =
= Note | PinkPL |        | GreenPL|        | BrownPL|        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 45     | 46     | 47     | 48     | 49     | 50     | 51     =
= RDay | 14     | 15     | 16     | 17     | 18     | 19     | 20     =
= Temp | 78 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 11 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon | FULL   |        |        |        | Last Q |        |        =
= MonI | 1.0    | 0.74   | 0.54   | 0.36   | 0.22   | 0.11   | 0.04   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 52     | 53     | 54     | 55     | 56     | 57     | 58     =
= RDay | 21     | 22     | 23     | 24     | 25     | 26     | 27     =
= Temp | 78.5 F |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 11 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon | NEW    |        |        |        | First Q|        |        =
= MonI | 0.004  | 0.004  | 0.04   | 0.11   | 0.22   | 0.36   | 0.54   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 59     | 60     | 61     |        |        |        |        =
= RDay | 28     | 29     | 30     |        |        |        |        =
= Temp | 79 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 11 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        | FULL   |        |        |        |        |        =
= MonI | 0.74   | 1.0    | 0.74   |        |        |        |        =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Month = 3  = Reef Year = 1   = Real Month = July   = Real Year = 92 =
=======================================================================
= Type | Sunday | Monday |Teusday |Wensday |Thursday| Friday |Saturday=
================|========|========|========|========|========|=========
= Day  |        |        |        | 62     | 63     | 64     | 65     =
= RDay |        |        |        | 1      | 2      | 3      | 4      =
= Temp | 79 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 11 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        |        |        |        | Last Q |        =
= MonI |        |        |        | 0.54   | 0.36   | 0.22   | 0.11   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 66     | 67     | 68     | 69     | 70     | 71     | 72     =
= RDay | 5      | 6      | 7      | 8      | 9      | 10     | 11     =
= Temp | 79.5 F |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 12 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        | NEW    |        |        |        | First Q|        =
= MonI | 0.04   | 0.004  | 0.004  | 0.04   | 0.11   | 0.22   | 0.36   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 73     | 74     | 75     | 76     | 77     | 78     | 79     =
= RDay | 12     | 13     | 14     | 15     | 16     | 17     | 18     =
= Temp | 79.5 F |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 12 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        | FULL   |        |        |        | Last Q =
= MonI | 0.54   | 0.74   | 1.0    | 0.74   | 0.54   | 0.36   | 0.22   =
= Note |        |        | Spawn  | Spawn  | Spawn  | Spawn  | Spawn  =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 80     | 81     | 82     | 83     | 84     | 85     | 86     =
= RDay | 19     | 20     | 21     | 22     | 23     | 24     | 25     =
= Temp | 80 F   |        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Sun  | 12 Hour|        |        |        |        |        |        =
= Moon |        |        | NEW    |        |        |        | First Q=
= MonI | 0.11   | 0.04   | 0.004  | 0.004  | 0.04   | 0.11   | 0.22   =
= Note |        |        |        |        |        |        |        =
=======================================================================
= Day  | 87     | 88     | 89     | 90     | 91     | 92     | Spawns =
= RDay | 26     | 27     | 28     | 29     | 30     | 31     | The    =
= Temp | 80 F   |        |        |        |        |        | Next   =
= Sun  | 12 Hour|        |        |        |        |        | Two    =
= Moon |        |        |        | FULL   |        |        | Days   =
= MonI | 0.36   | 0.54   | 0.74   | 1.0    | 0.74   | 0.54   | Predict=
= Note |        |        |        | Spawn  | Spawn  | Spawn  | ed Also=
=======================================================================

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M] Raising Soft Mushroom Coral Planulae/Spat Larvae

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 11 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 Now that I have confirmed planulae in my reef tray farming system,
its time to upgrade the cheap lighting I have. The 40 watt (low power)
flourescent strips I am using now are just 6-7 inches above the tray
bottom. The trays are 5 - 5.5 inches high. Due to the fact that the 
strips are so close to the bottom of the tray, I am assuming that 40
watt light bulbs will be enough power for raising fuzzy mushroom coral 
spat. Is this a good assumption ? The parent fuzzy mushroom is bright
green with white knobby growths covering the surface.
 What spectrum of light do I need ? I have ordered an Hamilton Actinic
Sun and Actinic bulb to experiment with. If I want to encourage the 
flourescent green color to appear, what spectrum should I concentrate
on ? Actinic, Actinic/Sun, or Non-Actinic Sun type bulbs. Putting
metal halide bulbs in would probably be impractical due to heat and
cost considerations. Also, VHO bulbs might be impractical due to the
spacing between bulb and tray bottom. Any lighting experts want to
comment or offer suggestions ?

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


Cerianthus anemone reproduction

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 26 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria,alt.aquaria

In article <PFBymB1w164w-at-aqua.ocunix.on.ca> cowan-at-aqua.ocunix.on.ca (D. Cowan (Postmaster)) writes:
>A while back I posted a message asking how anemones made little anemones.
>
>It appears I can now see the answer.  My cerianthus seems to have spawned about
>half a dozen (that I can see) little critters which now inhabit the area around
>its tube.
>
 Congradulations ! Corals and possibly anenomes have various methods of repro-
duction. Broadcast egg/sperm spawning, Planulae Brooding, Fragmentation, In-
ternal and External Budding and possibly Polyp Bail-Out. I wonder which method
was used by this anenome ? Possibly multiple budding or brooded planulae which
crawled out of the anenome. Did you see an egg/sperm release ? Also what is the
common name for this anenome ?

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


Cerianthus anemone reproduction

by cowan/aqua.ocunix.on.ca (D. Cowan (Postmaster))
Date: Sun, 28 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria

steve-at-celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) writes:

>  Congradulations ! Corals and possibly anenomes have various methods of repro
> duction. Broadcast egg/sperm spawning, Planulae Brooding, Fragmentation, In-
> ternal and External Budding and possibly Polyp Bail-Out. I wonder which metho
> was used by this anenome ? Possibly multiple budding or brooded planulae whic
> crawled out of the anenome. Did you see an egg/sperm release ? Also what is t
> common name for this anenome ?

I didn't see anything released, they just sort of appeared.  The anemone seems
to be more nocturnal that other anemones and corals I have seen.  The
only thing close to a common name I have seen is "tube anemone".  This one
has about 100 or more thin purple tentacles, about 4-5" long surrounding
about 100 or more smaller (.5" maybe less) lime green tentacles.  The mouth
is not visible.  It lives in a soft tube, much like a tube worm, that is about 
a foot long, but is coiled up.

The new little anemones seem to be near the opening of the tube and along
a section of the tube near the opening (due to the tube being coiled), but 
about 4" along the length.  It would appear they crawled out although I 
didn't witness it.  I just sort of noticed them.

I've seen some of my corals barf long strings of red stuff (about the colour
of the coral).  Is that another form of spawning, or did it have a bad night
at the ocean bar?

==============================================================================
                      cowan-at-aqua.ocunix.on.ca
                      system-at-aqua.ocunix.on.ca
==============================================================================
  The Aquarium BBS  (613)736-1481  1200-14400 bps  V.32bis  V.42bis  HST
                        Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
==============================================================================


Cerianthus anemone reproduction

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 29 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria

In article <BP62mB2w164w-at-aqua.ocunix.on.ca> cowan-at-aqua.ocunix.on.ca (D. Cowan (Postmaster)) writes:
>
>I've seen some of my corals barf long strings of red stuff (about the colour
>of the coral).  Is that another form of spawning, or did it have a bad night
>at the ocean bar?
>
 The brownish red stringy substance could be waste. Some corals do release 
strings or threads of mucus which contain eggs or planulae in the thread but 
the color should be milky or whitish. All of my corals release brownish 
waste every couple of days. Spawns happen less often.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


Cerianthus anemone reproduction

by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers)
Date: Mon, 29 Jun 1992
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria

steve-at-celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) writes:

>>I've seen some of my corals barf long strings of red stuff (about the colour
>>of the coral).  Is that another form of spawning, or did it have a bad night
>>at the ocean bar?
>>
> The brownish red stringy substance could be waste. Some corals do release 
>strings or threads of mucus which contain eggs or planulae in the thread but 
>the color should be milky or whitish. All of my corals release brownish 
>waste every couple of days. Spawns happen less often.

My open brain, Trachaphylia geofroyi, spawned brown-red strings.  I
know they were eggs because I checked them out under a microscope.  At
first I thought it was waste but one of the fish was chowing down
big-time which I've never seen them do with the other gooy strings put
out by other corals and anemones from time to time.  Since it was
eating so greedily I decided to check the stuff out under a microscope
(at work) and saw zillions of little eggs.
-- 
Keith Rogers
krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com


Cerianthus anemone reproduction

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 30 Jun 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,alt.aquaria

In article <1992Jun29.205007.7399-at-javelin.sim.es.com> krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com writes:
>
->My open brain, Trachaphylia geofroyi, spawned brown-red strings.  I
->know they were eggs because I checked them out under a microscope.  At
->first I thought it was waste but one of the fish was chowing down
->big-time which I've never seen them do with the other gooy strings put
->out by other corals and anemones from time to time.  Since it was
->eating so greedily I decided to check the stuff out under a microscope
->(at work) and saw zillions of little eggs.

  So it appears that we should investigate anything corals eject, at least
 until we can determine all the different methods for spawning each species
 has. This may prove to be difficult to do. We now have two specimens of
 T. geofroyi that spawned utilizing different techniques. Mine ejected sperm
 and eggs in a geyser spawn. It appears that these eggs did not develope
 properly. My recent planulae collections are developing. Keiths T. geofroyi
 released eggs and sperm in a stringy bundle. We may need furthur refinements
 in the definitions for T. geofroyi. Possibly building species classifications
 based on spawning methods ?

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M] Spawning of Euphyllia ancora

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 9 Jul 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 Last night a small branched Euphyllia ancora (Anchor, Hammerhead or Ridge
Coral) released some coral eggs. The specimen consists of 4 branches with
one polyp each. The rear polyp released around 35 eggs very slowly for over
a couple of hours. Two other polyps released less then 20 eggs. About 25-30
eggs were recovered and put in a circulation bowl. They are .4 - .5 micron
in diameter and white colored. The eggs were still intact this morning. Dont
know if eggs were properly developed or fertilized. I am hoping that this 
was the first day and that tonight more eggs will be released. Will try to
determine best method for developing these eggs.
 This occured 2 days after a recent NEW moon in my reef. This is the last
new moon before the predicted mass spawning full moon phase. One other coral
released a few (<10) pink planulae last night also. The coral is a strange
species of leather coral. It has a wide low base with numerous fingers which
extend vertically up to the light. Polpys extend from all over the fingers
much like a gorgonians polyps. The coral had retracted and some polyps were
extending and releasing the pink planulae. I am hoping that this corals main
spawn will be tonight. These two corals could be annual new moon spawning
corals. This could mean that everything is on track for the next full moon.
Will have video camera ready. I did take a few 35 mm photos of hammer coral,
but it only shows a few eggs. The release was slow. Will check it out to-
night.
 Update on Marine Angelfish rearing attempts. Have some dinoflagellate cul-
tures going and have also developed a bloom of some unidentified protozoan.
It behaves like a ciliate but appears more dinoflagellate like. Last rear-
ng attempt these were given to larvae and they did eat them and stomach was
seen to contain some matter. About 40-50 percent of larvae lasted till day 
7 but then refused to eat. I have located many scientific journal articles 
which deal with dinoflagellates and also rearing some types of marine lar-
vae. This is a very difficult task. The larvae may be going through a short 
period (1 - 1.5 days) where feeding must occur or they will definitely 
starve even if feeding resumes later. This period may be as small or smaller
then 24 hours for Centropyge sp. larvae. ie- You must have adequate food for
the first two days of feeding. Adequate for a first feeding larvae means a
whole bunch due to the larvaes inability to successfully capture food. It
is possible that they ate to much food. Its very hard to tell with 2.4 mm
eating larvae. The unidentified protozoans size is 8 - 60 microns and it
likes to swim in circles. Possible algae and dinoflagellate predator.
 Will keep you posted on new moon (mass ?) spawning.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M] Spawning of Euphyllia ancora

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 10 Jul 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 The E. ancora spawned again last night. I will describe this spawn refer-
ring to the hammer coral branches or polyps as 1,2,3,4. The first to spawn
was number 4 followed by number 2 polyp. Last night polyp 1 released a lot
of coral eggs while number 4 and 2 released some. About 150 eggs were re-
leased of which 100 were recovered. It will probably release some more eggs
tonight. No pink planulae were recovered however, 4 green planulae were re-
covered. Dont know the origins of planulae. Over the last two nights I have 
recovered the following.
   ~160  [.4 - .5mm] White Hammer Coral eggs.
     1   [.5mm] pink planulae.
     4   [.5mm] green planulae.
    20   [.7mm] unidentified transparent possible planulae.
   ~400  Centropyge Loriculus (Flame Angelfish) eggs.
  This dosent qualify as a mass reef aquaria spawning but I would call it a
new moon group reef aquaria spawn until a better phrase appears. My other
hammer coral is more ridge like and very large. It has started releasing 
material and might spawn soon. Also my small polyp colonies appear to have
bulging polyp mouths. The above mentioned unidentified possible planulae is
pretty strange looking. They appear as transparent bags with the open end on
the bottom with about three tentacles around the open edge. It moves towards
the surface by closing its bag. It almost appears like a single transparent
polyp creature with tentacles if it settled upside down. Dont know the source
of this creature.
  Results from first day coral egg developing tests. All eggs put in air stone
bubble circulator fell apart with no planulae. I put about 20 of the first
nights eggs into one of my reef farming trays and turned off circulation.
Last night and this morning small circular like white (planulae ?) were seen
on the previously clean sides of the tray. I put about 75 of the second nights
spawn in the tray last night. Coral eggs seem to float real good by themselves.
It might be a good idea just to let them float until planulae forms. Will know
more about this after further research.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M] Spawning of Euphyllia ancora

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 13 Jul 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 This is the third article on the spawning of a branched hammer coral. The
coral spawned big time friday night at 9:30 pm. This is 1 hour before night
time twilight. I would estimate that about 1,500 eggs were released in a 1
hour period. A more accurate measurement of the eggs puts the diameter at
330 microns or .33 mm. I collected about 500 eggs and transfered them to a 
tray system. The coral then released about 25-50 eggs saturday, but none were
collected. It was a 4 day spawn with the third day being the main spawning
day. I was amazed at how many eggs this medium sized stony coral with 4 
polyps was able to release. Close to 2,000 in total. This again has me con- 
cerned with what might happen during the potential mass spawn. Its possible
that thousands of eggs might be released in a short period.
 Saturday night I was able to collect a 2mm sized planulae bundle. These were
light brown in color and totalled about 100 planulae. What is interesting
about this is that last month the same type of bundle was released exactly
5 days after a new moon. Saturdays release was exactly 5 days after the last
new moon. The release in june occured 2 new moons ago, so either the coral
skipped a new moon or I missed that one. My tank changes at a 2 time daily
rate (ie- full moons are 15 days apart). Also the green and pink planulaes
collected last week were also collected around the same time 2 new moons ago.
The main point about these releases, is that they show that at least 3 corals
have been able to sync in with the artificial moonlight I am providing. So,
the moon setup appears to be working. The video camera is setup and ready
to roll.

  Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M][R] Strange behavior of elegance corals.

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 20 Jul 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 My reef has been put into a summer time mode where some corals have 
spawned and hopefully others will. The mass spawning hasnt materialized
yet and most of the corals have not spawned. While observing the reef 
over the weekend I made some interesting observations on 3 different
elegance corals. If other reef owners have seen specimens of this coral
exhibit the following symptoms, please let me know. Its possible that
the corals are exhibiting pre-spawning behavior. Tonight is day #6 after
the last full moon.
 During the day the corals release a brownish material in strings and
clumps. The releases are slow and the fish eat the brown substance. Under
a microscope no eggs or planulae were found. Then at early evening small
brown objects about 2mm in diameter can be seen traveling up the tentacles
to the tip. These objects only appear in 25 % of the tentacles and are
released intermittantly during the night. Last night white stringy material
was seen traveling from the polyp mouth to the tentacles. Then at twilight
the white substance travelled up some tentacles. All this activity seems 
to be increasing in intensity.
 I am expecting these corals to release eggs from the polyp mouths and do
not know why material is traveling up the elegances tentacles. Could these
activities be part of a prespawning manuever ? Still waiting and watching.
Are the small brown objects brooded planulae ?

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning (was Re:[M] Threespot Damsel Spa..)

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 22 Jul 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria,rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria

In article <1992Jul21.202415.5142-at-javelin.sim.es.com> krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com writes:
>
>Congrats.  It's still quite rare to get anything to spawn in marine
>tanks.  I'm jelous - my clown fish are all talk (go through all the
>prespawning motions) but no action.  By way of consolation, however,
>my open brain coral spawned again last week.

 What was the phase of the moon over your tank and was it the same phase when
the coral spawned last ? How many days seperated the 2 spawns ?

 My branched hammer coral spawned again last night. Around 400 eggs were re-
leased for the 2 hours folowing the metal halide daylight period. It will
probably spawn again. Last night was the new moon for my reef. The last time
this coral spawned was 2 days after the prior new moon. So this coral was
able to sense my artificial new moon and spawn to both even though the new
moons are only 15 days apart. Corals in nature will usually spawn during 
2 months of summer. For the Great Barrier Reef the months are Oct. and Nov.
if memory serves me right. This spawn cycle should be the second and last 
for this coral this reef summer.
 This time I captured the entire spawn on SVHS video tape. The camera is 
not the greatest, the coral was toward the back of the tank, the only light-
ing was from actinic tubes and the eggs are very small 330 microns. However,
you can definitely see eggs rising up from the branched coral polyps for 
about 10 minutes of tape spawning. The other 15 minutes of the tape shows
how I collect the pelagic coral eggs and even zooms into 3 eggs on a glass
pane. The camera was hand held and hand focused. I must be honest though
and state that collecting pelagic eggs with only 1 hand while filming the
event with a camera in the other hand was rather difficult. :> My humble
human abilities were enough to accomplish the task (insiders joke). 
 ps - I will attend SIGGRAPH in chicago and will bring the tapes with me.
      Wont have a tape player though.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning (was Re:[M] Threespot Damsel Spa..)

by krogers/javelin.sim.es.com (K. Rogers)
Date: Thu, 23 Jul 1992
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria,rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria

steve-at-celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree) writes:

>In article <1992Jul21.202415.5142-at-javelin.sim.es.com> krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com writes:
>>
>>Congrats.  It's still quite rare to get anything to spawn in marine
>>tanks.  I'm jelous - my clown fish are all talk (go through all the
>>prespawning motions) but no action.  By way of consolation, however,
>>my open brain coral spawned again last week.
>
> What was the phase of the moon over your tank and was it the same phase when
>the coral spawned last ? How many days seperated the 2 spawns ?

It was the first of two full moon nights.  There was only a very
little bit compared to the last spawning, though, perhaps several
hundres eggs vs tens of thousands before.  I was gone the next night
after the spawn so I don't know if it spewed more out that night.
I've been watching it very closely every night since the one I was
gone, especially the 3-6 days past full period, but I never saw
anything more.  Diel is from ~9am - 10 pm and water temp is 80-81F.
Note the tank has only had a moon for 1 month now so nothing's really
had time to synch up to it yet.

> ps - I will attend SIGGRAPH in chicago and will bring the tapes with me.
>      Wont have a tape player though.
>
> Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder

And I won't be there.  Too bad.
-- 
Keith Rogers
krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com


[M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning (was Re:[M] Threespot Damsel Spa..)

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 23 Jul 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria,rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria

In article <1992Jul23.014042.22104-at-javelin.sim.es.com> krogers-at-javelin.sim.es.com writes:
>
-> It was the first of two full moon nights.  There was only a very
-> little bit compared to the last spawning, though, perhaps several
-> hundres eggs vs tens of thousands before.  I was gone the next night
-> after the spawn so I don't know if it spewed more out that night.
-> I've been watching it very closely every night since the one I was
-> gone, especially the 3-6 days past full period, but I never saw
-> anything more.  Diel is from ~9am - 10 pm and water temp is 80-81F.
-> Note the tank has only had a moon for 1 month now so nothing's really
-> had time to synch up to it yet.

 The hammer spawned again last night. 2 hours before and 1 hour before twi-
light. Unfortunately, I was playing around with the camera and missed both
short immense geyser spawns. Looked neat in daylight. Tonight I will just
keep the video camera running and change tapes every 2 hours. Estimate over
a thousand eggs. I did tape a small slow release spawn and eggs floating
in the water after the fact.
 Now im trying to see how or if the eggs develope into spat. Jamie Oliver
stated that the eggs will divide as cells form. I was wondering how you can
see this when the egg is a solid color. After researching a journal article
with pictures of eggs dividing, it appears that the entire colored round egg
will sudivide itself. IE- no egg shell or outer layer. This has not occured
or at least been verified on my hammer eggs yet. Trying to spend time on the
scope but its busy.   
 I may have located the source of the green planulae/egg bundles which have
appeared around 3 days after the last few new moons. Last night my Turbinaria
turbinata (Chalice, Cup or Wineglass Coral) had its largest polyp appear to
be setting a egg bundle. This is what a polyp does before it releases the 
formed bundle. They appeared green. It later pulled the bundle back inside
itself. The chalice appears to have about 200 small polyps on its surface
and the largest one was setting. Its possible that this species of coral
only spawns from special large polyps which probably develope just for 
spawning. The other 2 large ones appeared to be acting strange to.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M][R] Secondary Coral Spawning

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 24 Jul 92
Newsgroup: alt.aquaria,rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria

In article <1731-at-celia.UUCP> celia!steve-at-usc.edu (Steve Tyree) writes:

-> The hammer spawned again last night. 2 hours before and 1 hour before twi-
-> light. Unfortunately, I was playing around with the camera and missed both
-> short immense geyser spawns. Looked neat in daylight. Tonight I will just
-> keep the video camera running and change tapes every 2 hours. Estimate over
-> a thousand eggs. I did tape a small slow release spawn and eggs floating
-> in the water after the fact.

   The camera ran all night and after reviewing it later that evening,
 I got a "geyser" spawn on tape. Its an incredible sight. One polyp of
 the 4 branches releasing about 200 eggs. Medium sized geyser. The shot
 was a closeup under full metal halide lighting. The spawn is right in
 the middle of a two hour tape. This allows me to analyze the coral before
 and after the spawn. Also, playing the tape forward and backward under    
 different speeds is really interesting. Backwards in fast speed is real
 wild looking. The name geyser is really appropiate for this method of
 shooting eggs out of the polyp. Now we need a better name for the slow
 release method of spawning. The spawn was short and quick. The tape will
 run again tonight.

 ps - I will be out of town for 10 days and probably not have net access.

  Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder
                              "So long and thanks for all the fish".
                               Douglass Adams Dolphin...


(M)(REEF) Gorgonian Spawning Again

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 26 Oct 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 Its one day before the next full moon night in my reef tank and some
sections of a Gorgonian sp. polyp colony are releasing eggs. Some
of the polyps held up to 9 eggs. This spawning occurred for different
polyps during the last full moon. I was able to collect about 25 eggs and
have them in a aerator with some maroxy. It appears that this species is
a hermatypic annual egg spawner and usually spawns in october in its
natural latitudinal location. This specimen has been in the reef for about
4 weeks and egg development must have initiated while in nature. Only a
few eggs from the last spawn appeared to subdivide. About 1/3 of them were
attacked by some bacterial fungus. Will monitor progress this time.
 The interesting point is that my Acropora sp. colony has been releasing
slime ropes that are very similar to the slime ropes that the G. sp.
released last month before it spawned. The A. sp. has never done this
before. Could these stringy releases be some part of a pre-spawning
procedure ? In both slime ropes some inert eliptical forms were observed
under a microscope. They were from 250-400 microns long. Other various
non-uniform clumps were seen within the mucus ropes.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


(M)(REEF) Gorgonian Spawning Again

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 27 Oct 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria,sci.aquaria


 The eggs from the prevous night did not develop well. The problem is that
that these particular coral eggs are very slimy and sticky. They eventually
stick to the sides of the circulator and foul. This morning a major slow egg
release occurred with 300 - 400 eggs were released of which 110 were collect-
ed. This time I am using stronger current in the aerator. Does anyone have
any suggestions on how to keep sticky eggs floating for 48 hours ? The Gor-
gonian sp. should release some more tomorrow morning. All egg releases occur
during a short 2 hour period in EARLY AFTERNOON from 9 - 10 am real pacific
time. This is unusual since most corals release during night twilight. This
coral has done this on 6 days including the spawns of last month. Took lots
of pictures of this huge spawn. The spawns are all near the full moon. This
will probably be the last full moon spawn for this annual spawner this year.
Is it possible that this partcular species releases eggs monthly ? This is
highly unlikely. Its origin is 20 degrees south of the equator and captive
spawning is occuring during the natural spawning season. Also, the sections
of the colony which are spawning now were not the sections which spawned 
last month. Tomorrow will be my last attempt this year to find a way to
develop fertilized gorgonian eggs. They appear to have a high bacterial
content due to the unusual smell of the water. About 75 percent of the polyps
have now released eggs.
 ps - This coral is also being asexually reproduced via fragmentation. The
      new branches are surviving well.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


(M)(REEF) Gorgonian Spawning Again

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 29 Oct 92
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <6516-at-dove.nist.gov> rosentha-at-bldrdoc.gov (Peter Rosenthal 303-497-5844) writes:
->	You might try using a teflon walled container to hold the  eggs.
->
->	The sticky eggs might have much more trouble adhering to teflon.
->	If you are using glass, or acrylic, then it may be sufficient
->	to use high density polyethylene, which would be cheaper and
->	easier to find then teflon. 

 Eggs have been collected for 4 days now. Average 100 per day. Looks like
today was the last spawn. These eggs were put in various containers under
various conditions. If any are released tomorrow morning I will try the
teflon or acrylic method you described. It is hard to say with certainty
just what these are or if they are developing properly. First a more ac-
curate description.
    Object size - ~ 450 micron radius.
           form - some spherical, some eliptical, some deformed shape.
    Number per polyp - Up to 10 released or gathered in polyp and then 
                       fall away a bundle or stringy group.
    Color - Creamy white, orange beige.
    Question - Are these eggs, egg clusters or non-mobile planulae.
               Very difficult to tell.

  When put in strong current they appear to change into clumps of very
 small objects and then fall apart. This could the individual egglets
 breaking away or the yolk explosion that Jamie refered to. In a lite
 or no current bowl eggs stick to bottom and stay together but loose
 spherical shape. Examine them again tonight. This coral could be 
 Gonochoric and the eggs may need proper fertilization or the eggs
 could be a non-mobile planulae or the eggs could actually be clusters
 . Its very hard to tell.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


[M] Calling all Reef Breeders...

by steve/celia.UUCP (Steve Tyree)
Date: 18 Feb 93
Newsgroup: rec.aquaria

In article <36-at-grivel.une.edu.au> rbennet1-at-neumann.une.edu.au (Robert Bennetts.) writes:

->	Calling all reef breeders...
->	How is it done, can you please tell the rest of the world, what sort of conditions you had in yoyr tanks to get your corals to spawn?
->	Sort of information I would be interested in...
->		H2OQ
->		Chemical additives (Ca, Sr, I, Mo?)
->		Use of artificial moon cycles?
->		Type of filtration?
->		Water flow? (tidal surges etc.)
->		Lighting (MH, VHO, flouros?)
->		size of tank?
->		other tank inhabitants?
->		Natural or Synthetic water (if synthetic, what brand?)
->		success rate of raising young to maturity?
->		methods of collecting and raising spawn?

 I have put together 2 articles that deal with reef breeding. They were done
as part of my own research and I do not mind sending out copies via the com-
puter. The complexity and methodology of reef species breeding varies quite
a bit. Raising juvenile acropora coral has been done in experimental labs.
Getting stony corals to spawn in unnatural rhythms has also been accomplished
on a limited basis by some private reef keepers. Combining the two accomplish-
ments of captive spawning induction and coral spat or juvenile raising is a
very difficult task. The first article of mine was sent out here a while
back and was a basic outline of the reef breeding conceptual phase. It was
fairly long. The second article is more scientifically orientated and requires
quite a bit of knowledge of reef breeding methodology. This article was very
long and was distributed on a limited basis. I originally was going to send
it to a magazine but the format it was composed in could probably not be
published without complications. It was a summary of scientific journal
articles which researched coral spawning methods. Very little of my research
was put into it. It was a reference composition that I have been using.
My plans now are to build up a Paradox for Windows data base application
which could be used as a reference to find specific journal article infor-
mation items. When this is done I will incorporate my own findings into
it. The volume of data a reef observer can generate can easily overload 
a hobbyist.

 Let me know if you want a copy of the

    conceptual article       (almost a year old)
                             (details some spawning induction success)

    research summary article (few months old)
                             (details a captive coral spawning induction)
                             (very long, very scientific)

       Please, only serious reef breeding enthusiasts respond.

 Steve Tyree - Reef Breeder


Up to Marine/Reefs <- The Krib
This page was last updated 29 October 1998