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Mosses (General)

Contents:

  1. Mosses for James
    by Nick Wise <nwwise01/netzero.net> (Sun, 02 Sep 2001)
  2. Crazy Mosses and the men who love them
    by Nick Wise <nwwise01/netzero.net> (Sun, 02 Sep 2001)
  3. moss update
    by "Cameron Case" <cameroncase/hotmail.com> (Tue, 25 Sep 2001)
  4. re: moss update
    by "James Purchase" <jppurchase/Home.com> (Wed, 26 Sep 2001)
  5. RE: sphagnum moss
    by Christopher Newell <newellcr/yahoo.com> (Fri, 16 Mar 2001)

Mosses for James

by Nick Wise <nwwise01/netzero.net>
Date: Sun, 02 Sep 2001

James Purchase" <jppurchase@Home.com> wrote:

<snip>

> And a note to everyone else - I'm still looking for small live samples of
> _any_ different mosses that are grown within your tanks. If you have a moss
> that has a different growth pattern or might be an unknown species, semd me
> a small sample and let me try to get it identified. This might be an
> opportunity to get a better idea of just how many different types of moss we
> actually have access to. (as long as the Bryologist is willing to ID all of
> them....).

<snip>

For any interested, here is a list of all species of fontinalis and
vesicularia found in the United States as recognized by the USDA. 
Scientific name (and source) and common names (where available) are
given.  Note: some names may actually be synonymous with others.

 
Scientific Name 			Common Name 

Fontinalis Hedw.  			fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.  		antifever fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. 
  var. antipyretica  			antifever fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. 
  var. mollis (C. Müll.) Welch 
  in Grout   

Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. 
  var. patula (Card.) Welch   

Fontinalis patula Card.   

Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. 
  var. gigantea (Sull.) Sull.  		giant antifever fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. 
  var. oregonensis Ren. & Card.  	Oregon fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis allenii Card. in Nichols   

Fontinalis chrysophylla Card.   

Fontinalis howellii Ren. & Card.   

Fontinalis kindbergii Ren. & Card.   

Fontinalis dalecarlica Schimp. 
  in B.S.G.  				fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis dalecarlica Schimp. in 
  B.S.G. var. macounii Card. in 
  Ren. & Card.   

Fontinalis dichelymoides Lindb.   

Fontinalis filiformis 
  Sull. & Lesq. in Aust.  		fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis flaccida Ren. & Card.  	flaccid fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis denticulata Kindb. in Röll   

Fontinalis hypnoides Hartm.  		fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis hypnoides Hartm. 
  var. duriaei (Schimp.) Husn.  	fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis duriaei Schimp.   

Fontinalis nitida Lindb. & Arnell   

Fontinalis subcarinata Card.   

Fontinalis hypnoides Hartm. 
  var. hypnoides  			fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis tenella (Card.) Card.   

Fontinalis langloisii Card.  		Langlois' fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis macmillanii Card.  		Macmillan's fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis missourica Card.  		Missouri fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis neomexicana Sull. & Lesq.  	New Mexican fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis novae-angliae Sull.  	New England fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis novae-angliae Sull. 
  var. cymbifolia (Aust.) 
  Welch in Grout  			New England fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis novae-angliae Sull. 
  var. waghornei (Card.) 
  Welch in Grout   

Fontinalis novae-angliae Sull. 
  var. lorenziae Card. in Nichols  	Lorenz's fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis lorenziae 
  (Card. in Nichols) Allen   

Fontinalis novae-angliae 
  Sull. var. novae-angliae  		New England fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis lescurii 
  Sull. in Sull. & Lesq.   

Fontinalis lescurii 
  Sull. in Sull. & Lesq. 
  var. ramosior Sull.   

Fontinalis novae-angliae Sull. 
  var. delamarei (Ren. & Card.) 
  Welch in Grout   

Fontinalis novae-angliae Sull. 
  var. heterophylla Card. in Nichols   

Fontinalis novae-angliae 
  Sull. var. latifolia Card. in 
  Nichols   

Fontinalis sphagnifolia 
  (C. Müll.) Wijk & Marg.  		fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis biformis Sull. in Gray   

Fontinalis sullivantii Lindb.  		Sullivant's fontinalis moss 

Fontinalis disticha Hook. & 
  Wils. in Drumm.   

Fontinalis sullivantii Lindb. 
  var. microdonta (Ren.) Welch 
  in Grout   

Fontinalis welchiana Allen  		Welch's fontinalis moss 


Scientific Name 			Common Name 

Vesicularia (C. Müll.) C. Müll.  	vesicularia moss 

Vesicularia vesicularis 
  (Schwaegr.) Broth.  			vesicularia moss 

Vesicularia amphibola 
  (Mitt.) Broth.   

Vesicularia caloosiensis 
  (Aust.) Crum   

Vesicularia crassicaulis 
  (Mitt.) Broth.  


- -- 
__________________________________________________
Nick Wise
nwwise01@netzero.net
Visit the Plant Trader Board at:
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Crazy Mosses and the men who love them

by Nick Wise <nwwise01/netzero.net>
Date: Sun, 02 Sep 2001

"James Purchase" <jppurchase@Home.com> wrote:

> Nick Wise posted a lisiting of Fontinalis and Vesicularia species which are
> reported to be found in the United States (thanks Nick). It is reported to
> be a listing recognized by the USDA (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture).
> 
> Maybe they have several lists.....
>
> I have checked with the main USDA Plants Database
> [http://www.itis.usda.gov/] and the listings they have there don't quite
> agree with what Nick posted. In particular, they only list one species of
> Vesicularia in the U.S.

<snip> 

Try going to http://plants.usda.gov/plants/ and do a search by
scientific name.  You'll find that of the vesicularia species I listed,
the USDA considers Vesicularia vesicularis, Vesicularia amphibola,
Vesicularia caloosiensis, and Vesicularia crassicaulis all to be the
same plant, just different names from different sources.   This then
leaves only one species of vesicularia found in the U.S. (vesicularia
vesicularis).  They claim it is native, though do not list where it can
be found.

As I stated in the post, many of the names are synonymous with others. 
Do a search on fontinalis and you will see what I mean.

A search on Mnium turns up the following: (indented names are synonyms
of the preceding)

Contains 9 species and 9 accepted taxa overall

Mnium ambiguum H. Müll.  ambiguous calcareous moss 
         Mnium inclinatum Lindb.   
         Mnium lycopodioides Schwaegr. var. inclinatum (Lindb.) Wijk &
Marg.   
         Mnium riparium Mitt.   
Mnium arizonicum Amann  Arizona calcareous moss 
         Mnium saximontanum M. Bowers   
Mnium blyttii Bruch & Schimp in B.S.G.  Blytt's calcareous moss 
         Stellariomnium blyttii (Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G.) M. Bowers   
Mnium hornum Hedw.  horn calcareous moss 
Mnium marginatum (With.) Brid. ex P. Beauv.  olivegreen calcareous moss 
         Mnium serratum Schrad. ex Brid.   
Mnium spinosum (Voit) Schwaegr.  spinosum calcareous moss 
Mnium spinulosum Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G.  largetooth calcareous moss 
Mnium stellare Hedw.  stellar calcareous moss 
         Stellariomnium stellare (Hedw.) M. Bowers   
Mnium thomsonii Schimp.  Thomson's calcareous moss 
         Mnium decurrens C. Müll. & Kindb. in Mac. & Kindb.   
         Mnium orthorrhynchum auct plur.   

Classification: 
                         
Kingdom  Plantae -- Plants 
 Division  Bryophyta -- Mosses 
  Subdivision  Musci 
   Class  Bryopsida -- True mosses 
    Subclass  Bryidae 
     Order  Bryales 
      Family  Mniaceae 
       Genus  Mnium Hedw. -- mnium calcareous moss

A search on dichelyma:

Contains 4 species and 4 accepted taxa overall

Dichelyma capillaceum (With.) Myr. -- dichelyma moss
Dichelyma falcatum (Hedw.) Myr. -- sickle dichelyma moss
Dichelyma pallescens Schimp. in B.S.G. -- dichelyma moss
Dichelyma uncinatum Mitt. -- dichelyma moss

Classification:

Kingdom  Plantae -- Plants 
 Division  Bryophyta -- Mosses 
  Subdivision  Musci 
   Class  Bryopsida -- True mosses 
    Subclass  Bryidae 
     Order  Isobryales 
      Family  Fontinalaceae 
       Genus  Dichelyma Myr. -- dichelyma moss

A search on Fissidens turns up the following:

Contains 36 species and 40 accepted taxa overall 

Fissidens adianthoides Hedw.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens adianthoides Hedw. var. immarginatus Lindb. ex Lesq.
& James   
Fissidens allenianus Brugg.-Nann. & Purs.  Allen fissidens moss 
Fissidens aphelotaxifolius Purs.  fissidens moss 
Fissidens appalachensis Zand.  Appalachian fissidens moss 
Fissidens arcticus Bryhn  arctic fissidens moss 
Fissidens asplenioides Hedw.  asplenium fissidens moss 
Fissidens bryoides Hedw.  bryoid fissidens moss 
         Fissidens andersonii Grout   
         Fissidens bryoides Hedw. var. brevifolius (Ren. & Card.) Wijk &
Marg.   
         Fissidens bryoides Hedw. var. incurvus (R”hl.) Hüb.   
         Fissidens exiguus Sull.   
         Fissidens exiguus Sull. var. falcatulus (Ren. & Card.) Grout   
         Fissidens falcatulus Ren. & Card.   
         Fissidens incurvus Starke ex R”hl.   
         Fissidens incurvus Starke ex R”hl. var. brevifolius Ren. &
Card.   
         Fissidens longifolius Brid.   
         Fissidens minutulus Sull.   
         Fissidens pusillus (Wils.) Milde   
         Fissidens repandus Wils.   
         Fissidens texanus Lesq. & James   
         Fissidens tortilis Hampe & C. Müll.   
         Fissidens viridulus (Sw.) Wahlenb.   
         Fissidens viridulus (Sw.) Wahlenb. var. brevifolius (Ren. &
Card.) Grout   
         Fissidens viridulus (Sw.) Wahlenb. var. tamarindifolius (Turn.)
Grout   
         Fissidens viridulus (Sw.) Wahlenb. var. texanus (Lesq. & James)
Grout   
Fissidens bushii (Card. & Thér.) Card. & Thér.  Bush's fissidens moss 
Fissidens clebschii Steere  Clebsch's fissidens moss 
Fissidens closteri Aust.  fissidens moss 
Fissidens dubius P. Beauv.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens adianthoides Hedw. var. semicristatus Grout   
         Fissidens cristatus Wils. ex Mitt.   
         Fissidens cristatus Wils. ex Mitt. var. winonensis (Ren. &
Card.) Grout   
Fissidens exilis Hedw.  fissidens moss 
Fissidens fontanus (B. Pyl.) Steud.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens debilis Schwaegr.   
         Fissidens julianus (Savi ex DC.) Schimp.   
Fissidens grandifrons Brid.  largeleaf fissidens moss 
Fissidens hallianus (Sull. & Lesq. in Aust.) Mitt.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens manateensis Grout in Holz.   
Fissidens hallii Aust.  Hall's fissidens moss 
Fissidens hyalinus Wils. & Hook.  fissidens moss 
Fissidens kochii Crum & Anderson  Koch's fissidens moss 
Fissidens limbatus Sull.  fissidens moss 
Fissidens littlei (Williams) Grout  Little's fissidens moss 
         Fissidens orcuttii Grout   
Fissidens microcladus Thwaites & Mitt. in Mitt.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens garberi Lesq. & James   
Fissidens milobakeri L. Koch  Milo's fissidens moss 
Fissidens neonii (Bartr.) Grout  neon fissidens moss 
Fissidens obtusifolius Wils.  obtuseleaf fissidens moss 
Fissidens obtusifolius Wils. var. apiculatus Grout  obtuseleaf fissidens
moss 
Fissidens obtusifolius Wils. var. kansanus Ren. & Card.  Kansas
fissidens moss 
Fissidens obtusifolius Wils. var. marginatus Flow.  obtuseleaf fissidens
moss 
Fissidens obtusifolius Wils. var. obtusifolius  obtuseleaf fissidens
moss 
Fissidens osmundioides Hedw.  osmund fissidens moss 
Fissidens papillosus Sande Lac.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens donnellii Aust.   
Fissidens pauperculus Howe  fissidens moss 
Fissidens pellucidus Hornsch.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens subcrenatus Schimp. in C. Müll.   
Fissidens polypodioides Hedw.  polypody fissidens moss 
Fissidens ravenelii Sull.  Ravenel's fissidens moss 
Fissidens reesei Crum & Anderson  Reese's fissidens moss 
Fissidens subbasilaris Hedw.  fissidens moss 
Fissidens sublimbatus Grout  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens limbatus Sull. var. brevifolius Sull.   
         Fissidens limbatus Sull. var. ensiformis (Grout) Grout   
Fissidens taxifolius Hedw.  fissidens moss 
Fissidens ventricosus Lesq.  fissidens moss 
         Fissidens rufulus auct. Amer.   
Fissidens zollingeri Mont.  Zollinger's fissidens moss 
         Fissidens kegelianus C. Müll.  

Classification:

Kingdom  Plantae -- Plants 
 Division  Bryophyta -- Mosses 
  Subdivision  Musci 
   Class  Bryopsida -- True mosses 
    Subclass  Bryidae 
     Order  Fissidentales 
      Family  Fissidentaceae 
       Genus  Fissidens Hedw. -- fissidens moss

As far as if any are suitable for use in aquaria, I don't know at this
point.  Perhaps through some additional research, we can determine this.
:)

P.S.  Sorry for the length, but hope some find it interesting.

- -- 
__________________________________________________
Nick Wise
nwwise01@netzero.net
Visit the Plant Trader Board at:
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moss update

by "Cameron Case" <cameroncase/hotmail.com>
Date: Tue, 25 Sep 2001

I posted a few weeks ago about what appeared to be three or four different 
mosses.  Now that they have all had time to show enough new growth for 
patterns, here's what I've got (and where I got them, if you are 
interested).

Java Moss .1 - I can occaisionally get this locally, and it is the same as 
what is sold at www.azgardens.com.  It is generally thread shaped, with 
random, short "branches" that are not long enough to change the overall 
shape of the moss.

Java Moss .2 - I got this one from www.aquaticplantdepot.com.  It looks 
somewhat like a cross between Java Moss .1 and Christmas Moss (up next).  It 
grows in a long "strand" with regular, opposing branches of a uniform 
length.  The general shape is like stitches...long center piece with lots of 
smaller opposing crossing branches.

Christmas Moss - I got this from Loh Kwek Leong.  It looks just like the 
name implies, a long center strand with crossing strands that are even and 
opposing, but that get progressively smaller towards the tip (giving it an 
overall triangular shape).

Willow Moss - I got this in an auction, and I can only say what it is based 
on what it was called to me, and by comparing it to pictures in books (so, 
probably willow moss, but not definitely).  This one is somewhat similar to 
a cross between Java Moss .2 and Christmas Moss.  It has a long center 
strand, with long crossing, opposing strands that grow in the same general 
direction of the center.  Unlike Christmas Moss (with crossing strands that 
are basically perpendicular to the center), the crossing pieces come to a 
"V" at the center strand.  This can also be bought at www.azgardens.com, but 
I haven't ever gotten it there (picture matches, though).

The Java Moss .1 and Christmas Moss seem to be about the same color green, 
and lighter colored than the other two.  Two tanks have Christmas Moss, and 
as Kwek Leong has said, it does better in lower temps (much better growth in 
my 74* tank than my 78* tank, even with that small of a temp difference).  
The Willow Moss is the darkest color of green, and the Java Moss .2 is 
somewhere in the middle.  Also, in shipping these I've discovered that the 
Christmas Moss ships the best (by far) and the Willow Moss ships the worst.  
The Java Moss .1 and .2 seem to ship about the same, and handle it admirably 
(even in the heat of an AL summer), but still not as well as the Christmas 
Moss (which looked like it had been hand delivered from 2 blocks 
away...though it went from Singapore to AL).

Now, I'm not nearly so serious in my moss endeavors as James Purchase, but I 
do like to share what little first-hand knowledge I have of these particular 
specimens.  As soon as I find the cables for my digital camera I'll get some 
pictures up and you can compare them yourselves.  Until then, Kwek Leong has 
pictures of the Christmas Moss on his site, and you can find an OK picture 
of willow moss at http://www.azgardens.com/images/page2.45.gif.

I hope this message 1) clears up some of the confusion that I caused in my 
last moss-related posts, and 2) helps anyone who wants a moss variety to 
choose and find what suits them.

Cameron in AL


re: moss update

by "James Purchase" <jppurchase/Home.com>
Date: Wed, 26 Sep 2001

Thanks for the update on your mosses Cameron. Since your earlier posting, I
have received some information from a Bryologist in the UK who identified
several samples of aquatic moss found in greenhouses and aquaria in the U.K.
This material was published in the Journal of Bryology, Vol 15, Part 3,
1989.

The first moss species was discovered growing on damp brickwork in the
Orchid House of the Univ. of Cambridge Botanic Gardens. It was at first
suspected to be Vesicularia dubyana. Upon closer examination, it was
suggested that the plant was probably V. reticulata, a species which has a
wider natural distribution than V. dubyana, and the sample matched the
published description of that species more closely than it did to V. dubyana
(it is NOT suggested that V. reticulata is native to the U.K., this was
probably just an escapee within the greenhouse). V. reticulata is naturally
found in Celebes, Sumatra, Java, the Philippines, Singapore and N.W. India.

Another moss grown in aquaria in the U.K. and initially identified as Java
Moss, obtained originally from either Java or N.E. Australia, was ultimately
identified as Glossadelphus zollingeri.

I have found references which give the name Ectropothecium as a synonym of
Glossadelphus.

In searching the web, I couldn't come up with anything of value on V.
reticulata but I did find a number of hits for G. zollingeri. Apparently,
20-30 years ago it was rather popular.
- - http://www.nbat.nl/aquarium/watermossen.html (in Dutch) If anyone can read
Dutch, I'd love a translation of this page.
- - http://www.accesscomm.ca/nonprofits/ras/ariticles/plant01.htm From the
Regina Aquarium Society
- - http://dfendel.multimania.com/aquamag/GlossadelphusZollingeri.html (In
French) has a photo
- - http://home.sunrise.ch/ivanov/plantasie.htm#java (In French) has a photo
- - http://home.sunrise.ch/ivanov/plantations/plantations6.htm (In French) has
several photos

Your moss #2 might not be V. dubyana.
Your Willow Moss is probably a species of Fontinalis.

Your observation about the temperature sensitivity of Christmas Moss matches
what I have seen in my own tanks. It doesn't like really warm water - the
bit I put in my Discus tank (83F-85F) hasn't grown nearly as well as that
growing in another tank at lower temperatures (78F). I also placed a small
bit in an outside tank and it doesn't seem to like cold temperatures
(September nights here can get pretty cool).

James Purchase
Toronto


RE: sphagnum moss

by Christopher Newell <newellcr/yahoo.com>
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2001

Elie had asked about sphagnum moss.  "just wonderning
- - has anyone ever tried to grow sphagnum
 moss underwater?  seems like it would make a nice 
aquarium plant"

I reply.  I haven't tried to grow spahgnum moss
submersed.  Emersed, it should do great.  According to
the "Savage Garden" (carnivorous plant book), you can
even get it to start by using the dried sphagnum - not
the shreaded stuff, the whole dried moss fiber.  The
spores are dormant then under proper conditions it
will grow again.  Certainly avoid the decorative
sphagnum - it has dye in it.

A lot of people use the natural dried sphagnum fibers
in the substrate for their aquarium plants.  

If you have some living sphagnum, give it a try.

Good Luck!

Chris


=====
newellcr@yahoo.com
http://home.att.net/~c.r.newell/


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