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This is front-view picture of the tank in operation prior to adding any substrate. The water is blue from a dye I added to check water flow patterns.
Vertical tubing in the tank consists of (from left to right):
The horizontal tubing that borders the outside walls of the tank (has towers sticking up at the corners is the diffusion system. The towers are the diffusers and direct water in a clockwise direction in this tank. If you look at the diffuser in the right back corner of the tank, you can just make out the two 1/4" holes drilled in it to direct water. The identical diffuser beside it is a reflection in the glass.
The tubing that lays across the bottom and has three small towers sticking up is the substrate skimmer tubing. The towers are the drains and each has four holes drilled in the cap on top.
The other horizontal tubing in the tank is the nutrient injection system.
This is a picture of the test setup from behind. The tank closest to the camera is the settling tank. Vertical tubing from right to left in the picture consists of:
This is a picture of the tank from above. Note the holes drilled in the substrate skimmer tubing caps to serve as drain grates.
This is a picture of the tank prior to assembly. The tubing may be easier to see than in the first picture.
This is a picture from above the tank prior to assembly. The camera flash interfered with this picture some.
This is a picture of the tank, viewed at a diagonal angle prior to assembly. The hook-shaped tubing above the tank is to prevent water from spilling onto the carpet if the check valve leaks.
This is a picture of the diffuser system component outside the tank.
This is a picture of the surface skimmer outside the tank.
This is a picture of the substrate flow system (nutrient injection) outside the tank.
This is a picture of the underside of the substrate flow system. The tube across the top of the picture has visible perforations along the centerline of the tube. Perforations in the other tubes are too small for the scanner to pick out.
This is a picture of the subsrate skimmer outside the tank.
This is a photo of my 55g tank right after trimming, a few months prior to teardown. The PVC tubing inside the tank was used for prototype implementations of my surface skimmer and substrate skimmer designs. The two anubias nana in the picture had been moved to the tank's location at the time of the picture in-tank and had been in-place for over 3 years. The large dark object on the left wall of the tank is an apple snail.
David W. Webb
Enterprise Computing Provisioning
Texas Instruments Inc. Dallas, TX USA
(214) 575-3443 (voice) MSGID: DAWB (214) 575-4853 (fax) Internet: dwebb-at-ti.com (214) 581-2380 (pager) Text Pager: pgr-at-ti.com Subj:PAGE:David Webb
From dwebb-at-ti.com Sat May 11 23:10:26 1996 Date: Tue, 19 Mar 1996 14:16:22 -0800 From: "David W. Webb" <dwebb-at-ti.com> To: Erik Olson (e-mail) Subject: Re: System design photos [The following text is in the "ISO-8859-1" character set] [Your display is set for the "US-ASCII" character set] [Some characters may be displayed incorrectly] > From: Erik Olson <(e-mail)>, on 3/19/96 11:04 AM: > Question: did you post an article explaining all this stuff? I do have a > short description of your overflow skimmer part in the Tech section of the Krib, but I wonder if your overall article on the fertilization > system got lost somewhere. If you can point me to a general date you > posted it, I have all my APDs archived & can pull it from there. I posted a few articles about these designs over the last 10 months or so. I found as many of them as I could and included the references below. I also included the text from two other designs. Note that I modified my nutrient-injection system (substrate flow system) designs due to space limitations in the 20g (and my 55g). As far as I can tell, my first mention on the APD of the substrate flow system is here. The explanation of my substrate flow design is here. Further discussion of my tank plans is at: here. (I wound up throwing the 50g away.) I made another mention of my plans here. The 40g actually wound up being a 29g and a 20h. I did a vermiculite-sand substrate on the 20 with a 10g sump and used the 29 for a sump for my 55g. The laterite experiment will also have to wait until I get another 20g tank. I talked briefly about my 20h implementation (the one pictured) here. I mention an advantage of settling tanks here. Charley Bay and I pretty much talked each other into switching to settling tanks instead of trickle filters. I talked about my 55g setup, pre-planting here. David Whittaker, the first person I know of who implemented my designs, wrote an article on his "Webb-Kelley tank" here and here. Here are other articles that I have written for emailing to people: ------------------------------------------------ When I tear my tank down, I'm planning on a sub-gravel plumbing system with diffusers that stick up a few inches above the gravel and create a definite lower-level flow pattern. I'm hoping that this flow will help my plants metabolize nutrients more effectively by constantly delivering fresh nutrients. I'm also hoping that this flow pattern will keep the detrius off of the gravel and plant leaves and help flush it down the trickle filter. I have a 55 gallon. I am planning to put one diffuser in each corner and one in the back. I will either attempt to create a counter- clockwise flow pattern or a half and half flow pattern. I think the counter-clockwise pattern will take less pump, so that's what I'm looking at right now. I am also planning two or three center-drains at the gravel level. Maybe I'll cover the drains with some coarse gravel so they aren't visible. I plan to cover the openings for these drains with coarse mesh to keep from sucking down a fish. These will be plumbed with a straight siphon for periodic usage and with a loopback (smart) siphon for continuous usage. Hopefully, opening the ball valve on one of these will suck down any debris that refuses to follow the current up to the tank drain. Under the gravel will also be a substrate aeration system. It will consist of 1/2" PVC tubing with 2 rows of holes, angled at 90 degrees from one another. The holes will be positioned at the bottom of the tube. I've mapped everything out like this. |================================================================| |DiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiDiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiD| |isGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGi| |is Gi| |isGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGi| |isssssssssssssssssSssssssssssssSssssssssssssS Gi| |i GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGi| |i Gi| |i GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGi| |D D| |================================================================| D = Diffuser. Each of these pokes its head about 2" out above the gravel. Slots in each head will direct the water flow. The heads will screw in to allow for changes in head design and direction. The tube from the pump is in the right-back corner of the tank. i = Tubing leading to the diffusers. Outside the tank, I will use a check- valve leading to a loop-back to the sump. If the power shuts off, the check valve opens when the feedback siphon starts, and air enters the siphon. When the power comes on, the check valve closes because of the water pressure from the pump. Any water that gets past the check valve drains back to the sump. S = Substrate drains. Each of these will have its own tube and siphon. s = Tubing for substrate drains. Ball valves will allow flow control into the high loop-back or the low loop-back, depending on the desired siphon speed, or no siphoning at all. The substrate drain tubing will exit in the left-back corner of the tank, along with the skimmer drain tubing (not shown). Each substrate drain will have it's own tubing and control valve. G = Substrate aeration system. A small coupling in the diffuser tubing will allow a small amount of water to enter the substrate aeration system. The top of the substrate aeration system will be open to the air. All control valves will be positioned outside the tank where they're easy to get to. Quick-release couplings will make disassembly, cleaning, and part replacement easy. I will probably have to modify the sizes on the diffusers to get an even flow out of each. I also plan to use smaller holes in the substrate aeration system towards the end with the inlet tube. -------------------------------------------------- "Automatic vacuum" tank drain. Designed by David W. Webb dwebb-at-ti.com The automatic vacuum uses a loop-back siphon design to keep from draining the tank when it is in automatic mode. In high-speed mode, it will quickly drain the tank. I designed this drain after getting annoyed with having to vacuum the surface of my gravel more often than I thought should be necessary. This tank drain is intended for non-drilled tanks and tanks that can't be drilled safely. This system relies on water motion within the tank to move debris to the vacuum. A water-flow swirl in the tank will provide this motion. Note: This system is designed with plant tanks in mind. Extra aeration procedures may be necessary in a normal tank with a swirl water flow. Blanket Disclaimer: I am not responsible for any damage to personal property or injury to persons if you use any of my suggestions or designs. I reserve the right to modify my designs at any time. __ C.-----------------D. //\\ | ------------- | || =\\==================| |=== G.| | | | || # | | # ---- | | | || #~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~| |~~# | -- ~| | | || # | | # | |F.| | | | || # | | # | | | | | | || # | | # | | | | | | || # | | # | | | | | |E. || # | | # | | | | | | || # A. | | # | | | | | | || #-at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at--at-###-at--at--at--at--at--at--at-| |-at--at-# | | | | | | || # | ------- | # | |J.| | | | || # B. ----------- # | == - | || ########################### | ==------ || | | \\________ I. | | \________\ ---==----- | \\ H.| -==------- ===||======| |===== # || | # # || | # # || | # # _||_ |----------# #~| |~|~~~~~~~~~~# # | | | # ################### A. The gravel vacuum drain. This should be covered with a screen of some sort to keep fish and gravel out. The screen should be removable and cleanable. You want it fine enough to keep fish out, but coarse enough to pull in debris. The drain should be as close to flush with the substrate surface as is possible. It might be possible to lightly cover the drain and surrounding area with coarse gravel to make it less visible. I plan to use three drains arranged linearly across the bottom of my 55 gallon tank. I currently have one, and it isn't enough. Each drain will have its own parts A. B. C. and D. and will have its own shut-off valve before they join at E. B. The J-tube should be as low as possible in your tank. A good place to put it is under the gravel. The J-tube must be below the bottom of the waterfall (F.) The waterfall will control the final resting water level of the tank when the pump is off. C. The siphon draws water out of the tank and into the velocity loop (E.) D. An air fitting on the outside elbow of the siphon provides an easy way to start the siphon. Joseph S. Sellinger suggests that you connect this fitting to the air venturii on one of your power heads. I believe that this will work on higher flow power heads. Beware that for this application, the power head needs to be in the tank and not in the sump, otherwise a siphon in the air tubing could slowly drain the tank. E. The velocity loop should drop as far down as is the tank is deep. The velocity loop holds the water necessary to start or re-start the siphon. F. The waterfall drains the siphoned water into the sump. The waterfall in this application controls the resting water level of the tank when the pump is off. G. The surge tube allows you to fill the velocity loop to start the siphon. It also acts to buffer water surges. The top of the surge tube should be even with or above the top of the tank to prevent spilling any water during a surge. (Surges may occur when you add water to the tank rapidly.) You can reduce noise at this location by placing a drilled cap loosely over the top of the surge tube. The drilled hole will prevent a siphon from forming and draining your tank, and the cap will muffle the sound of the water draining down the waterfall. H. The drain into the sump. You may want to use a piece of filter material suspended under this drain or use a settling tank to catch debris. I. An individual shut-off valve for each drain. J. The high-speed portion of the loop. A shut-off valve positioned here controls whether this is on or not. If you leave this side of the loop on for long, you will drain your tank. Good for flushing out the vacuum system. I recommend placing quick-disconnects at strategic places in this system so you can easily tear it down for maintenance, modification, or repair. David W. Webb Enterprise Computing Provisioning Texas Instruments Inc. Dallas, TX USA (214) 575-3443 (voice) MSGID: DAWB (214) 575-4853 (fax) Internet: dwebb-at-ti.com (214) 581-2380 (pager) Text Pager: pgr-at-ti.com Subj:PAGE:David Webb
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