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Introduced/Released Exotic Plants


  1. prohibited plants in NH
    by krandall/ (Sat, 22 Nov 1997)
  2. pumps, exotics
    by mks/ (Mark Stowe) (Sat, 3 Jan 1998)
  3. Proposed anti-plant legislation
    by krandall/ (Sun, 19 Jul 1998)
  4. The pineapple growers' substrate
    by Lori Shimoda <lshimoda/> (Fri, 20 Oct 2000)
  5. Noxious weeds
    by Gupp <gupp/> (Wed, 08 Nov 2000)

prohibited plants in NH

by krandall/
Date: Sat, 22 Nov 1997

Jeff Dietsch wrote:

>Thanks Karen, Susan, and Mark for your reply.  
>   I find it kind of funny that an area that freezes solid in winter would
>have a problem with tropical plants, but I can understand the need for
>control.  I however find it difficult to belive that there are that many
>hobbyists in NH that routinely cut holes in the ice to plant Cabomba:)
>Although understanding that Cabomba can be found up to Virginia I suppose
>they can have problems with it in the summer months.  Although I guess that
>means it would have to be replanted every year?

It's this kind of misunderstanding that causes problems on both sides of
the issue.  Cabomba caroliniana is not a _threat_ in New England, it is an
established plant.  It easily winters over, and is a wide spread problem in
our water ways, although not quite as big a problem as Eurasian Milfoil.
Trapa Natans is also established in several lakes.

Never underestimate the vigor of aquatic plants in the wild.  There is an
established stand of Java Fern in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey, and a
friend of mine has overwintered a big Echinodorus cordifolius in his
outdoor pond, under the ice here in Massachusetts for several years now.
He even had some Java Fern make it through the last winter.  His pond,
however is far from any natural body of water, so there is little danger of
accidental introduction.

We must _all_ take the subject of non-native introductions very seriously,
and err on the side of caution always.  The problem with the N.H.
legislation is that it not only places unfair and unrealistic restrictions
on a small group of people, it also fails to address the much larger and
very real problem of introduction via boats, etc.

Mark is correct that the Texas law which includes a "dirty" list is a much
better option.  NH, at this point has not even developed a "clean" list.
Karen Randall
Aquatic Gardeners Association

pumps, exotics

by mks/ (Mark Stowe)
Date: Sat, 3 Jan 1998
To: eriko/

Hi, I am someone who came across your very useful pages while I was
searching for information on small pumps.  I found a wealth of information
for a gadgety person like me even though I have no interest in aquaria.  I
will probably ask the usenet group about their experience with air pumps -
I am looking for something that will run for at least 5 years continuously.

My main reason for writing is to strongly suggest that in addition to
pointing out the problems of habitat degradation from destructive
collectors there is one other very important environmental issue that you
should be alerting your readers to - the danger of releasing fish and
especially aquarium plants into the environment.   There are plenty of
naive readers out there whom you might prevent from pouring the next
Hydrilla into their local pond.  In many areas of South Florida, the native
plants and herps have been completely displaced by exotics.  We in North
Florida are slowly but surely losing the same battle.  The problem is
worldwide (and will be especially acute in countries which have no enforced
import controls) - 20% of Canada's plant species are now non-natives, many
of the species in the Galapagos are on the edge of extinction.  I tried to
find some links for you that emphasized aquatic pests but I could only find
these (which emphasize terrestrial plants)

As someone who started 4 unrelated web pages, I appreciate the magnitude of
your efforts, and hope you don't mind the kibbitzing.  Best wishes,


Mark Stowe
Department of Zoology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

Mark Stowe
1902 NW 1rst Ave.
Gainesville, FL  32603-1702

E-mail: MKS-at-ZOO.UFL.EDU

phone: (note new area code) HOME: 352 373 3202 voice mail comes on after ~
4 rings if no one is home, BUT AFTER ONLY 0-1 rings if we are on another
call - not like call waiting: after the call we learn there is a message
and then may/may not retrieve it LAB: 352 392 1187 please don't leave a
message here FAX: 352 392 3704 dept. office, use discretion, label

waiting for Rhapsody (not Rapture, Rhapsody)

Proposed anti-plant legislation

by krandall/
Date: Sun, 19 Jul 1998

Hanna Witte Orr wrote:

>There was an article in last week's (? or the week before that) Science
>News about a monster sea plant spreading out in the Mediterranean. It
>was introduced accidentally by a marine aquarium in Monaco and has so
>far covered a lot of the western Mediterranean. The problem with this
>plant  is that it gets caught in nets and propellers and can grow an
>entire plant from any little fragment - so you could say that it was
>spread mainly by humans... :) (Kind of like a marine bindweed)
>Don't misunderstand me, I'm not supporting this piece of legislation;
>but I do think that everybody should know what can happen. I also think
>that people with plant aquaria are the ones that know best and don't go
>around dumping plants into waterways (they are great on compost if you
>really need to get rid of them...). 

I hate to tell you, but unfortunately, there are a _lot_ of aquarium
keepers (I won't dignify them with the term "aquarist") who do _not_ know
better than to dump plants and fish into our water ways.  We've had people
come on this list and want to know what ornamental plants they can put in
their natural ponds.  There are several "pirhana" scares each year across
the country. (usually Pacu, but still non-natives)  Florida is over-run by
ornamental non-native plants, fish and other exotic animals that have
gotten loose, many form fish farms and growers in FL that _certainly_
should "know better".  There are pup fish populations in desert water holes
that are threatened by the introduction of mollies and guppies!

I'm sure people who keep floating heart in their ornamental ponds don't
think of the fact that the profuse floating seeds can be eaten by birds,
which then eliminate them into natural water bodies.

Many aquarists like to keep a few native fish.  What do they do with them
when they're done?  Often they release them where they were caught.  Seems
OK?  What about pathogens they may have picked up in the fish room?  What
about stray bits of algae or higher plant material that hitch-hike in the
transport water or in the digestive track of the fish?  Food for thought,
isn't it?

One of the best ways we can protect our hobby as _well_ as the environment
is to educate others to act responsibly at every opportunity. 

BTW, you'd better make sure that compost pile doesn't abutt any swampy
area... many "aquatic" plants are perfectly able to thrive in any soil that
stays continually damp.  People don't always think of these things.    It's
not only boaters and duck hunters that can be stupid.<g>

Karen Randall
Aquatic Gardeners Association

The pineapple growers' substrate

by Lori Shimoda <lshimoda/>
Date: Fri, 20 Oct 2000


PLEASE do not send any soil from Hawaii to the mainland!  Hawaii has 
Nematodes in the soil and due to agricultural concerns it is 
prohibited to send soil in any form to the mainland.

We have used laterite dug from various areas on the island of Oahu. 
In fact my aunt who is a former University of Hawaii soil chemist 
instructed us on how and where to find it.  If you are gathering soil 
from Hawaii be very careful NOT to gather it from or near 
former/current agricultural land due to the various chemicals that 
were once used on the crops and run-off.


Noxious weeds

by Gupp <gupp/>
Date: Wed, 08 Nov 2000

I know this has been somewhat discussed in the past but I thought some
of you would be interested in this information. In the last few months I
had 2 people from the USDA APHIS contact me via email because I have
information about salvinia on my web site. I'm copying the email here
because I feel it's relevant to many on the list. Anyway, take it as you
may. I personally have mixed feelings, but I did post their list on my
site and I sure won't be selling or shipping any of the plants I have on
their list. I have to say I do feel uncomfortable with the big brother
like way they seem to be handling this, but I have to say the individual
people I've emailed in the department have been courteous.


> Subject: Salvinia
>    Date:  Tue, 12 Sep 2000 10:17:33 -0400
>    From: Polly P Lehtonen <>
>      To:
> Dear Rhonda,
> Concerned stakeholders have alerted us to the listing of  "water velvet"
> (Salvinia auriculata) on your web site.  The giant salvinias are listed
> federal noxious weeds, which may not be imported or moved interstate
> without a federal noxious weed permit.
> We are extremely concerned about the availability of the Salvinia
> auriculata complex in the aquatic plant trade.  Giant salvinia is escaping
> into the environment, causing serious problems in Texas, Louisiana, and
> other southern states.  Control and eradication programs will be expensive.
> Because of the high risk of escape into waterways,  the Plant Protection
> and Quarantine Permit Unit does not issue permits for movement of members
> of the Salvinia auriculata complex other than for research in containment
> facilities.  The state regulatory official in the state of destination must
> concur with permit issuance, and the containment facility is subject to
> inspection.  
> Congress recently passed the Plant Protection Act, which increased the
> penalties for knowing violations (such as moving a federal noxious weed
> without a permit.) Civil penalties range from $1,000 to $250,000 per
> violation.
> You could perform a valuable service by discouraging visitors to your
> website from purchasing federal noxious weeds.  The complete list of
> aquatic plants on the federal noxious weed list are :
> Azolla pinnata (Azollaceae) (mosquito fern, water velvet) 
> Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpaceae)(Mediterranean clone of caulerpa) 
> Eichhornia azurea (Ponterderiaceae) (anchored waterhyacinth) 
> Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) (hydrilla) 
> Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae) (Miramar weed) 
> Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae) (Chinese waterspinach) 
> Lagarosiphon major (Hydrocharitaceae) (Oxygen weed) 
> Limnophila sessiliflora (Scrophulariaceae) (ambulia) 
> Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae) (melaleuca) 
> Monochoria hastata (Pontederiaceae) (monochoria) 
> Monochoria vaginalis (Pontederiaceae) (pickerel weed) 
> Ottelia alismoides (Hydrocharitaceae) (duck-lettuce) 
> Sagittaria sagittifolia (Alismataceae) (arrowhead) 
> Salvinia spp. (Salviniaceae) (giant salvinias) 
> Solanum tampicense (Solanaceae)(wetland nightshade) 
> Sparganium erectum (Sparganiaceae) (exotic bur-reed)
> We appreciate your help in spreading the word about prohibited aquatic
> species.  Congratulations on your new adorable baby!
> Sincerely,
> Polly P. Lehtonen
> Botanist
> Permits and Risk Assessment
> USDA - APHIS - Plant  Protection and Quarantine

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